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26 62 Promoters
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6.2 Promoters
labeled product of the holoenzyme or the core enzyme to
authentic T4 phage RNA and then checking for RNase
resistance. That is, they attempted to get the two RNAs to
base-pair together and form an RNase-resistant
double-stranded RNA. Because authentic T4 RNA is made
asymmetrically (only one DNA strand in any given region is
copied), it should not hybridize to T4 RNA made properly
in vitro because this RNA is also made asymmetrically and
is therefore identical, not complementary, to the authentic
RNA. Bautz and associates did indeed observe this behavior
with RNA made in vitro by the holoenzyme. However, if
the RNA is made symmetrically in vitro, up to half of it will
be complementary to the in vivo RNA and will be able to
hybridize to it and thereby become resistant to RNase. In
fact, Bautz and associates found that about 30% of the labeled RNA made by the core polymerase in vitro became
RNase-resistant after hybridization to authentic T4 RNA.
Thus, the core enzyme acts in an unnatural way by transcribing both DNA strands.
Clearly, depriving the holoenzyme of its s-subunit
leaves a core enzyme with basic RNA synthesizing capability, but lacking specificity. Adding s back restores specificity. In fact, s was named only after this characteristic
came to light, and the s, or Greek letter s, was chosen to
stand for “specificity.”
123
Binding of RNA Polymerase to Promoters
How does s change the way the core polymerase behaves
toward promoters? David Hinkle and Michael Chamberlin
used nitrocellulose filter-binding studies (Chapter 5) to help
answer this question. To measure how tightly holoenzyme
and core enzyme bind to DNA, they isolated these enzymes
from E. coli and bound them to 3H-labeled T7 phage DNA,
whose early promoters are recognized by the E. coli polymerase. Then they added a great excess of unlabeled T7
DNA, so that any polymerase that dissociated from a labeled DNA had a much higher chance of rebinding to an
unlabeled DNA than to a labeled one. After varying lengths
of time, they passed the mixture through nitrocellulose filters. The labeled DNA would bind to the filter only if it was
still bound to polymerase. Thus, this assay measured the dissociation rate of the polymerase–DNA complex. As the last
(and presumably tightest bound) polymerase dissociated
from the labeled DNA, that DNA would no longer bind to
the filter, so the filter would become less radioactive.
Figure 6.2 shows the results of this experiment. Obviously, the polymerase holoenzyme binds much more tightly
to the T7 DNA than does the core enzyme. In fact, the holoenzyme dissociates with a half time (t1/2) of 30–60 h,
which lies far beyond the timescale of Figure 6.2. This
means that after 30–60 h, only half of the complex had
SUMMARY The key player in the transcription pro-
6.2
Promoters
In the T4 DNA transcription experiments presented in
Table 6.1, why was core RNA polymerase still capable of
transcribing nicked DNA, but not intact DNA? Nicks and
gaps in DNA provide ideal initiation sites for RNA polymerase, even core polymerase, but this kind of initiation is
necessarily nonspecific. Few nicks or gaps occurred on the
intact T4 DNA, so the core polymerase encountered only a
few such artificial initiation sites and transcribed this DNA
only weakly. On the other hand, when s was present, the
holoenzyme could recognize the authentic RNA polymerase
binding sites on the T4 DNA and begin transcription there.
These polymerase binding sites are called promoters. Transcription that begins at promoters in vitro is specific and
mimics the initiation that would occur in vivo. Thus, s
operates by directing the polymerase to initiate at specific
promoter sequences. In this section, we will examine the
interaction of bacterial polymerase with promoters, and
the structures of these promoters.
100
Holoenzyme
% [3H]DNA bound
cess is RNA polymerase. The E. coli enzyme is composed of a core, which contains the basic transcription
machinery, and a s-factor, which directs the core to
transcribe specific genes.
10
Core
1
0
20
40
Time (min)
60
Figure 6.2 Sigma stimulates tight binding between RNA
polymerase and promoter. Hinkle and Chamberlin allowed
3
H-labeled T7 DNA to bind to E. coli core polymerase (blue) or
holoenzyme (red). Next, they added an excess of unlabeled T7
DNA, so that any polymerase that dissociated from the labeled DNA
would be likely to rebind to unlabeled DNA. They filtered the mixtures
through nitrocellulose at various times to monitor the dissociation
of the labeled T7 DNA–polymerase complexes. (As the last
polymerase dissociates from the labeled DNA, the DNA will no longer
bind to the filter, which loses radioactivity.) The much slower
dissociation rate of the holoenzyme (red) relative to the core
polymerase (blue) shows much tighter binding between T7 DNA and
holoenzyme. (Source: Adapted from Hinckle, D.C. and Chamberlin, M.J.,
“Studies of the Binding of Escherichia coli RNA Polymerase to DNA,” Journal of
Molecular Biology, Vol. 70, 157–85, 1972.)
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Chapter 6 / The Mechanism of Transcription in Bacteria
dissociated, which indicates very tight binding indeed. By
contrast, the core polymerase dissociated with a t1/2 of less
than a minute, so it bound much less tightly than the holoenzyme did. Thus, the s-factor can promote tight binding,
at least to certain DNA sites.
In a separate experiment, Hinkle and Chamberlin
switched the procedure around, first binding polymerase to
unlabeled DNA, then adding excess labeled DNA, and
finally filtering the mixture at various times through nitrocellulose. This procedure measured the dissociation of the
first (and loosest bound) polymerase, because a newly dissociated polymerase would be available to bind to the free
labeled DNA and thereby cause it to bind to the filter. This
assay revealed that the holoenzyme, as well as the core, had
loose binding sites on the DNA.
Thus, the holoenzyme finds two kinds of binding sites
on T7 DNA: tight binding sites and loose ones. On the
other hand, the core polymerase is capable of binding
only loosely to the DNA. Because Bautz and coworkers
had already shown that the holoenzyme, but not the core,
can recognize promoters, it follows that the tight binding
sites are probably promoters, and the loose binding sites
represent the rest of the DNA. Chamberlin and colleagues
also showed that the tight complexes between holoenzyme and T7 DNA could initiate transcription immediately on addition of nucleotides, which reinforces the
conclusion that the tight binding sites are indeed promoters. If the polymerase had been tightly bound to sites remote from the promoters, a lag would have occurred
while the polymerases searched for initiation sites. Furthermore, Chamberlin and coworkers titrated the tight
binding sites on each molecule of T7 DNA and found
only eight. This is not far from the number of early
promoters on this DNA. By contrast, the number of loose
binding sites for both holoenzyme and core enzyme is
about 1300, which suggests that these loose sites are
found virtually everywhere on the DNA and are therefore
nonspecific. The inability of the core polymerase to bind
to the tight (promoter) binding sites accounts for its inability to transcribe DNA specifically, which requires
binding at promoters.
Hinkle and Chamberlin also tested the effect of temperature on binding of holoenzyme to T7 DNA and found
a striking enhancement of tight binding at elevated
temperature. Figure 6.3 shows a significantly higher
dissociation rate at 258 than at 378C, and a much higher
dissociation rate at 158C. Because high temperature promotes DNA melting (strand separation, Chapter 2) this
finding is consistent with the notion that tight binding involves local melting of the DNA. We will see direct evidence
for this hypothesis later in this chapter.
Hinkle and Chamberlin summarized these and other
findings with the following hypothesis for polymerase–
DNA interaction (Figure 6.4): RNA polymerase holoenzyme binds loosely to DNA at first. It either binds initially
100
37°C
% labeled DNA bound
124
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50
25°C
10
5
15°C
0
2
4
6
Time (h)
8
10
Figure 6.3 The effect of temperature on the dissociation of the
polymerase–T7 DNA complex. Hinkle and Chamberlin formed
complexes between E. coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme and 3H-labeled
T7 DNA at three different temperatures: 378C (red), 258C (green), and
158C (blue). Then they added excess unlabeled T7 DNA to compete with
any polymerase that dissociated; they removed samples at various times
and passed them through a nitrocellulose filter to monitor dissociation of
the complex. The complex formed at 378C was more stable than that
formed at 258C, which was much more stable than that formed at 158C.
Thus, higher temperature favors tighter binding between RNA
polymerase holoenzyme and T7 DNA. (Source: Adapted from Hinckle, D.C.
and Chamberlin, M.J., “Studies of the Binding of Escherichia coli RNA Polymerase to
DNA,” Journal of Molecular Biology, Vol. 70, 157–85, 1972.)
(a) Promoter search
Core
σ
(b) Closed promoter
complex formation
(c) Open promoter
complex formation
Figure 6.4 RNA polymerase/promoter binding. (a) The holoenzyme
binds and rebinds loosely to the DNA, searching for a promoter.
(b) The holoenzyme has found a promoter and has bound loosely, forming
a closed promoter complex. (c) The holoenzyme has bound tightly,
melting a local region of DNA and forming an open promoter complex.
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6.2 Promoters
at a promoter or scans along the DNA until it finds one. The
complex with holoenzyme loosely bound at the promoter is
called a closed promoter complex because the DNA remains in closed double-stranded form. Then the holoenzyme can melt a short region of the DNA at the promoter to
form an open promoter complex in which the polymerase is
bound tightly to the DNA. This is called an open promoter
complex because the DNA has to open up to form it.
It is this conversion of a loosely bound polymerase in a
closed promoter complex to the tightly bound polymerase
in the open promoter complex that requires s, and this is
also what allows transcription to begin. We can now appreciate how s fulfills its role in determining specificity of
transcription: It selects the promoters to which RNA polymerase will bind tightly. The genes adjacent to these promoters will then be transcribed.
SUMMARY The s-factor allows initiation of
transcription by causing the RNA polymerase holoenzyme to bind tightly to a promoter. This tight
binding depends on local melting of the DNA to
form an open promoter complex and is stimulated
by s. The s-factor can therefore select which genes
will be transcribed.
Promoter Structure
What is the special nature of a bacterial promoter that attracts
RNA polymerase? David Pribnow compared several E. coli
and phage promoters and discerned a region they held in
common: a sequence of 6 or 7 bp centered approximately
10 bp upstream of the start of transcription. This was originally dubbed the “Pribnow box,” but is now usually called the
210 box. Mark Ptashne and colleagues noticed another short
sequence centered approximately 35 bp upstream of the transcription start site; it is known as the 235 box. Thousands of
promoters have now been examined and a typical, or consensus sequence for each of these boxes has emerged (Figure 6.5).
These so-called consensus sequences represent probabilities. The capital letters in Figure 6.5 denote bases that have a
high probability of being found in the given position. The
lowercase letters correspond to bases that are usually found
in the given position, but at a lower frequency than those
125
denoted by capital letters. The probabilities are such that one
rarely finds 210 or 235 boxes that match the consensus sequences perfectly. However, when such perfect matches are
found, they tend to occur in very strong promoters that initiate transcription unusually actively. In fact, mutations that
destroy matches with the consensus sequences tend to be
down mutations. That is, they make the promoter weaker,
resulting in less transcription. Mutations that make the promoter sequences more like the consensus sequences usually
make the promoters stronger; these are called up mutations.
The spacing between promoter elements is also important,
and deletions or insertions that move the 210 and 235
boxes unnaturally close together or far apart are deleterious.
In Chapter 10 we will see that eukaryotic promoters have
their own consensus sequences, one of which resembles the
210 box quite closely.
In addition to the 210 and 235 boxes, which we can
call core promoter elements, some very strong promoters
have an additional element farther upstream called an UP
element. E. coli cells have seven genes (rrn genes) that encode rRNAs. Under rapid growth conditions, when rRNAs
are required in abundance, these seven genes by themselves
account for the majority of the transcription occurring in
the cell. Obviously, the promoters driving these genes are
extraordinarily powerful, and their UP elements are part of
the explanation. Figure 6.6 shows the structure of one of
these promoters, the rrnB P1 promoter. Upstream of the
core promoter (blue), there is an UP element (red) between
positions 240 and 260. We know that the UP element is a
true promoter element because it stimulates transcription
of the rrnB P1 gene by a factor of 30 in the presence of
RNA polymerase alone. Because it is recognized by the
polymerase itself, we conclude that it is a promoter element.
This promoter is also associated with three so-called Fis
sites between positions 260 and 2150, which are binding
sites for the transcription-activator protein Fis. The Fis sites,
because they do not bind to RNA polymerase itself, are not
classical promoter elements, but instead are members of
another class of transcription-activating DNA elements
called enhancers. We will discuss bacterial enhancers in
greater detail in Chapter 9.
The E. coli rrn promoters are also regulated by a pair of
small molecules: the initiating NTP (the iNTP) and an
alarmone, guanosine 59-diphosphate 39-diphosphate (ppGpp).
An abundance of iNTP indicates that the concentration of
– 35 box
– 10 box
TTGACa
AACTGt
TAtAaT
ATaTtA
Transcription
Unwound region
Figure 6.5 A bacterial promoter. The positions of 210 and 235 boxes and the unwound region are shown relative to the start of transcription for a
typical E. coli promoter. Capital letters denote bases found in those positions in more than 50% of promoters examined; lower-case letters denote bases
found in those positions in 50% or fewer of promoters examined.
Fly UP