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DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors

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DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors
CHAPTER 21 | CIRCUITS, BIOELECTRICITY, AND DC INSTRUMENTS
Solution
One factor would be resistance in the wires and connections in a null measurement. These are impossible to make zero, and they can change
over time. Another factor would be temperature variations in resistance, which can be reduced but not completely eliminated by choice of
material. Digital devices sensitive to smaller currents than analog devices do improve the accuracy of null measurements because they allow you
to get the current closer to zero.
21.6 DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors
When you use a flash camera, it takes a few seconds to charge the capacitor that powers the flash. The light flash discharges the capacitor in a tiny
fraction of a second. Why does charging take longer than discharging? This question and a number of other phenomena that involve charging and
discharging capacitors are discussed in this module.
RC Circuits
An
RC circuit is one containing a resistor R and a capacitor C . The capacitor is an electrical component that stores electric charge.
Figure 21.38 shows a simple RC circuit that employs a DC (direct current) voltage source. The capacitor is initially uncharged. As soon as the
switch is closed, current flows to and from the initially uncharged capacitor. As charge increases on the capacitor plates, there is increasing
opposition to the flow of charge by the repulsion of like charges on each plate.
V c = Q / C , where Q is the amount of charge stored on each plate and
C is the capacitance. This voltage opposes the battery, growing from zero to the maximum emf when fully charged. The current thus decreases
from its initial value of I 0 = emf to zero as the voltage on the capacitor reaches the same value as the emf. When there is no current, there is no
R
IR drop, and so the voltage on the capacitor must then equal the emf of the voltage source. This can also be explained with Kirchhoff’s second rule
In terms of voltage, this is because voltage across the capacitor is given by
(the loop rule), discussed in Kirchhoff’s Rules, which says that the algebraic sum of changes in potential around any closed loop must be zero.
I 0 = emf , because all of the IR drop is in the resistance. Therefore, the smaller the resistance, the faster a given capacitor
R
will be charged. Note that the internal resistance of the voltage source is included in R , as are the resistances of the capacitor and the connecting
The initial current is
wires. In the flash camera scenario above, when the batteries powering the camera begin to wear out, their internal resistance rises, reducing the
current and lengthening the time it takes to get ready for the next flash.
Figure 21.38 (a) An
RC
circuit with an initially uncharged capacitor. Current flows in the direction shown (opposite of electron flow) as soon as the switch is closed. Mutual
repulsion of like charges in the capacitor progressively slows the flow as the capacitor is charged, stopping the current when the capacitor is fully charged and
Q = C ⋅ emf . (b) A graph of voltage across the capacitor versus time, with the switch closing at time t = 0 . (Note that in the two parts of the figure, the capital script E
q stands for the charge stored on the capacitor, and τ is the RC time constant.)
stands for emf,
Voltage on the capacitor is initially zero and rises rapidly at first, since the initial current is a maximum. Figure 21.38(b) shows a graph of capacitor
voltage versus time ( t ) starting when the switch is closed at t = 0 . The voltage approaches emf asymptotically, since the closer it gets to emf the
less current flows. The equation for voltage versus time when charging a capacitor
C through a resistor R , derived using calculus, is
V = emf(1 − e −t / RC) (charging),
where
(21.77)
V is the voltage across the capacitor, emf is equal to the emf of the DC voltage source, and the exponential e = 2.718 … is the base of the
RC are seconds. We define
natural logarithm. Note that the units of
τ = RC,
(21.78)
τ (the Greek letter tau) is called the time constant for an RC circuit. As noted before, a small resistance R allows the capacitor to charge
C , the less
time needed to charge it. Both factors are contained in τ = RC .
where
faster. This is reasonable, since a larger current flows through a smaller resistance. It is also reasonable that the smaller the capacitor
More quantitatively, consider what happens when
t = τ = RC . Then the voltage on the capacitor is
V = emf ⎛⎝1 − e −1⎞⎠ = emf(1 − 0.368) = 0.632 ⋅ emf.
(21.79)
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CHAPTER 21 | CIRCUITS, BIOELECTRICITY, AND DC INSTRUMENTS
This means that in the time τ = RC , the voltage rises to 0.632 of its final value. The voltage will rise 0.632 of the remainder in the next time τ . It is
a characteristic of the exponential function that the final value is never reached, but 0.632 of the remainder to that value is achieved in every time, τ .
In just a few multiples of the time constant τ , then, the final value is very nearly achieved, as the graph in Figure 21.38(b) illustrates.
Discharging a Capacitor
Discharging a capacitor through a resistor proceeds in a similar fashion, as Figure 21.39 illustrates. Initially, the current is
initial voltage
formula for
V . Using calculus, the voltage V on a capacitor C being discharged through a resistor R is found to be
Figure 21.39 (a) Closing the switch discharges the capacitor
voltage across the capacitor versus time, with
τ.
V0
, driven by the
R
V 0 on the capacitor. As the voltage decreases, the current and hence the rate of discharge decreases, implying another exponential
V = V e −t / RC(discharging).
constant
I0 =
V = V0
at
(21.80)
C through the resistor R . Mutual repulsion of like charges on each plate drives the current. (b) A graph of
t = 0 . The voltage decreases exponentially, falling a fixed fraction of the way to zero in each subsequent time
The graph in Figure 21.39(b) is an example of this exponential decay. Again, the time constant is τ = RC . A small resistance R allows the
capacitor to discharge in a small time, since the current is larger. Similarly, a small capacitance requires less time to discharge, since less charge is
stored. In the first time interval τ = RC after the switch is closed, the voltage falls to 0.368 of its initial value, since V = V 0 ⋅ e −1 = 0.368V 0 .
During each successive time τ , the voltage falls to 0.368 of its preceding value. In a few multiples of
indicated by the graph in Figure 21.39(b).
τ , the voltage becomes very close to zero, as
Now we can explain why the flash camera in our scenario takes so much longer to charge than discharge; the resistance while charging is
significantly greater than while discharging. The internal resistance of the battery accounts for most of the resistance while charging. As the battery
ages, the increasing internal resistance makes the charging process even slower. (You may have noticed this.)
The flash discharge is through a low-resistance ionized gas in the flash tube and proceeds very rapidly. Flash photographs, such as in Figure 21.40,
can capture a brief instant of a rapid motion because the flash can be less than a microsecond in duration. Such flashes can be made extremely
intense.
During World War II, nighttime reconnaissance photographs were made from the air with a single flash illuminating more than a square kilometer of
enemy territory. The brevity of the flash eliminated blurring due to the surveillance aircraft’s motion. Today, an important use of intense flash lamps is
to pump energy into a laser. The short intense flash can rapidly energize a laser and allow it to reemit the energy in another form.
Figure 21.40 This stop-motion photograph of a rufous hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) feeding on a flower was obtained with an extremely brief and intense flash of light
powered by the discharge of a capacitor through a gas. (credit: Dean E. Biggins, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)
Example 21.6 Integrated Concept Problem: Calculating Capacitor Size—Strobe Lights
High-speed flash photography was pioneered by Doc Edgerton in the 1930s, while he was a professor of electrical engineering at MIT. You might
have seen examples of his work in the amazing shots of hummingbirds in motion, a drop of milk splattering on a table, or a bullet penetrating an
apple (see Figure 21.40). To stop the motion and capture these pictures, one needs a high-intensity, very short pulsed flash, as mentioned
earlier in this module.
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CHAPTER 21 | CIRCUITS, BIOELECTRICITY, AND DC INSTRUMENTS
5.0×10 2 m/s ) that was passing through an apple. The duration of the flash is
related to the RC time constant, τ . What size capacitor would one need in the RC circuit to succeed, if the resistance of the flash tube was
Suppose one wished to capture the picture of a bullet (moving at
10.0 Ω ? Assume the apple is a sphere with a diameter of 8.0×10 –2 m.
Strategy
We begin by identifying the physical principles involved. This example deals with the strobe light, as discussed above. Figure 21.39 shows the
circuit for this probe. The characteristic time τ of the strobe is given as τ = RC .
Solution
We wish to find C , but we don’t know τ . We want the flash to be on only while the bullet traverses the apple. So we need to use the kinematic
equations that describe the relationship between distance x , velocity v , and time t :
x = vt or t = vx .
The bullet’s velocity is given as
(21.81)
5.0×10 2 m/s , and the distance x is 8.0×10 –2 m. The traverse time, then, is
–2
t = vx = 8.0×102 m = 1.6×10 −4 s.
5.0×10 m/s
We set this value for the crossing time
(21.82)
t equal to τ . Therefore,
−4
C = t = 1.6×10 s = 16 µF.
R
10.0 Ω
(Note: Capacitance C is typically measured in farads,
in units of seconds per ohm.)
(21.83)
F , defined as Coulombs per volt. From the equation, we see that C can also be stated
Discussion
The flash interval of
160 µs (the traverse time of the bullet) is relatively easy to obtain today. Strobe lights have opened up new worlds from
science to entertainment. The information from the picture of the apple and bullet was used in the Warren Commission Report on the
assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963 to confirm that only one bullet was fired.
RC Circuits for Timing
RC circuits are commonly used for timing purposes. A mundane example of this is found in the ubiquitous intermittent wiper systems of modern
cars. The time between wipes is varied by adjusting the resistance in an RC circuit. Another example of an RC circuit is found in novelty jewelry,
Halloween costumes, and various toys that have battery-powered flashing lights. (See Figure 21.41 for a timing circuit.)
A more crucial use of RC circuits for timing purposes is in the artificial pacemaker, used to control heart rate. The heart rate is normally controlled by
electrical signals generated by the sino-atrial (SA) node, which is on the wall of the right atrium chamber. This causes the muscles to contract and
pump blood. Sometimes the heart rhythm is abnormal and the heartbeat is too high or too low.
The artificial pacemaker is inserted near the heart to provide electrical signals to the heart when needed with the appropriate time constant.
Pacemakers have sensors that detect body motion and breathing to increase the heart rate during exercise to meet the body’s increased needs for
blood and oxygen.
Figure 21.41 (a) The lamp in this
RC
circuit ordinarily has a very high resistance, so that the battery charges the capacitor as if the lamp were not there. When the voltage
reaches a threshold value, a current flows through the lamp that dramatically reduces its resistance, and the capacitor discharges through the lamp as if the battery and
charging resistor were not there. Once discharged, the process starts again, with the flash period determined by the RC constant τ . (b) A graph of voltage versus time for
this circuit.
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