...

Energy Stored in Capacitors

by taratuta

on
Category: Documents
6

views

Report

Comments

Transcript

Energy Stored in Capacitors
686
CHAPTER 19 | ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND ELECTRIC FIELD
Total capacitance in parallel is simply the sum of the individual capacitances. (Again the “...” indicates the expression is valid for any number of
capacitors connected in parallel.) So, for example, if the capacitors in the example above were connected in parallel, their capacitance would be
C p = 1.000 µF+5.000 µF+8.000 µF = 14.000 µF.
(19.70)
The equivalent capacitor for a parallel connection has an effectively larger plate area and, thus, a larger capacitance, as illustrated in Figure
19.22(b).
Total Capacitance in Parallel,
Total capacitance in parallel
Cp
C p = C 1 + C 2 + C 3 + ...
More complicated connections of capacitors can sometimes be combinations of series and parallel. (See Figure 19.23.) To find the total capacitance
of such combinations, we identify series and parallel parts, compute their capacitances, and then find the total.
Figure 19.23 (a) This circuit contains both series and parallel connections of capacitors. See Example 19.10 for the calculation of the overall capacitance of the circuit. (b)
C 1 and C 2 are in series; their equivalent capacitance C S is less than either of them. (c) Note that C S is in parallel with C 3 . The total capacitance is, thus, the sum of
CS
and
C3 .
Example 19.10 A Mixture of Series and Parallel Capacitance
Find the total capacitance of the combination of capacitors shown in Figure 19.23. Assume the capacitances in Figure 19.23 are known to three
decimal places ( C 1 = 1.000 µF , C 2 = 3.000 µF , and C 3 = 8.000 µF ), and round your answer to three decimal places.
Strategy
To find the total capacitance, we first identify which capacitors are in series and which are in parallel. Capacitors
Their combination, labeled
C S in the figure, is in parallel with C 3 .
C 1 and C 2 are in series.
Solution
Since
C 1 and C 2 are in series, their total capacitance is given by 1 = 1 + 1 + 1 . Entering their values into the equation gives
CS C1 C2 C3
1 = 1 + 1 =
1
1
+
= 1.200 .
µF
C S C 1 C 2 1.000 µF 5.000 µF
(19.71)
C S = 0.833 µF.
(19.72)
Inverting gives
This equivalent series capacitance is in parallel with the third capacitor; thus, the total is the sum
C tot = C S + C S
= 0.833 µF + 8.000 µF
= 8.833 µF.
(19.73)
Discussion
This technique of analyzing the combinations of capacitors piece by piece until a total is obtained can be applied to larger combinations of
capacitors.
19.7 Energy Stored in Capacitors
Most of us have seen dramatizations in which medical personnel use a defibrillator to pass an electric current through a patient’s heart to get it to
beat normally. (Review Figure 19.24.) Often realistic in detail, the person applying the shock directs another person to “make it 400 joules this time.”
The energy delivered by the defibrillator is stored in a capacitor and can be adjusted to fit the situation. SI units of joules are often employed. Less
This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11406/1.7
CHAPTER 19 | ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND ELECTRIC FIELD
dramatic is the use of capacitors in microelectronics, such as certain handheld calculators, to supply energy when batteries are charged. (See Figure
19.24.) Capacitors are also used to supply energy for flash lamps on cameras.
Figure 19.24 Energy stored in the large capacitor is used to preserve the memory of an electronic calculator when its batteries are charged. (credit: Kucharek, Wikimedia
Commons)
Q and voltage V on the capacitor. We must be careful
ΔPE = qΔV to a capacitor. Remember that ΔPE is the potential energy of a charge q
Energy stored in a capacitor is electrical potential energy, and it is thus related to the charge
when applying the equation for electrical potential energy
ΔV . But the capacitor starts with zero voltage and gradually comes up to its full voltage as it is charged. The first charge
ΔV = 0 , since the capacitor has zero voltage when uncharged. The final charge placed on a
capacitor experiences ΔV = V , since the capacitor now has its full voltage V on it. The average voltage on the capacitor during the charging
process is V / 2 , and so the average voltage experienced by the full charge q is V / 2 . Thus the energy stored in a capacitor, E cap , is
going through a voltage
placed on a capacitor experiences a change in voltage
E cap =
where
QV
,
2
(19.74)
Q is the charge on a capacitor with a voltage V applied. (Note that the energy is not QV , but QV / 2 .) Charge and voltage are related to
C of a capacitor by Q = CV , and so the expression for E cap can be algebraically manipulated into three equivalent expressions:
the capacitance
E cap =
where
QV CV 2 Q 2
=
=
,
2
2
2C
(19.75)
Q is the charge and V the voltage on a capacitor C . The energy is in joules for a charge in coulombs, voltage in volts, and capacitance in
farads.
Energy Stored in Capacitors
The energy stored in a capacitor can be expressed in three ways:
E cap =
where
QV CV 2 Q 2
=
=
,
2
2
2C
(19.76)
Q is the charge, V is the voltage, and C is the capacitance of the capacitor. The energy is in joules for a charge in coulombs, voltage
in volts, and capacitance in farads.
In a defibrillator, the delivery of a large charge in a short burst to a set of paddles across a person’s chest can be a lifesaver. The person’s heart
attack might have arisen from the onset of fast, irregular beating of the heart—cardiac or ventricular fibrillation. The application of a large shock of
electrical energy can terminate the arrhythmia and allow the body’s pacemaker to resume normal patterns. Today it is common for ambulances to
carry a defibrillator, which also uses an electrocardiogram to analyze the patient’s heartbeat pattern. Automated external defibrillators (AED) are
found in many public places (Figure 19.25). These are designed to be used by lay persons. The device automatically diagnoses the patient’s heart
condition and then applies the shock with appropriate energy and waveform. CPR is recommended in many cases before use of an AED.
687
Fly UP