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Huygenss Principle Diffraction

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Huygenss Principle Diffraction
CHAPTER 27 | WAVE OPTICS
Figure 27.3 (a) The laser beam emitted by an observatory acts like a ray, traveling in a straight line. This laser beam is from the Paranal Observatory of the European
Southern Observatory. (credit: Yuri Beletsky, European Southern Observatory) (b) A laser beam passing through a grid of vertical slits produces an interference
pattern—characteristic of a wave. (credit: Shim'on and Slava Rybka, Wikimedia Commons)
Light has wave characteristics in various media as well as in a vacuum. When light goes from a vacuum to some medium, like water, its speed and
wavelength change, but its frequency f remains the same. (We can think of light as a forced oscillation that must have the frequency of the original
v = c / n , where n is its index of refraction. If we divide both sides of equation c = f λ by n , we get
c / n = v = f λ / n . This implies that v = f λ n , where λ n is the wavelength in a medium and that
source.) The speed of light in a medium is
λ n = nλ ,
(27.2)
λ is the wavelength in vacuum and n is the medium’s index of refraction. Therefore, the wavelength of light is smaller in any medium than it
n = 1.333 , the range of visible wavelengths is (380 nm)/1.333 to (760 nm)/1.333 , or
λ n = 285 to 570 nm . Although wavelengths change while traveling from one medium to another, colors do not, since colors are associated with
where
is in vacuum. In water, for example, which has
frequency.
27.2 Huygens's Principle: Diffraction
Figure 27.4 shows how a transverse wave looks as viewed from above and from the side. A light wave can be imagined to propagate like this,
although we do not actually see it wiggling through space. From above, we view the wavefronts (or wave crests) as we would by looking down on the
ocean waves. The side view would be a graph of the electric or magnetic field. The view from above is perhaps the most useful in developing
concepts about wave optics.
Figure 27.4 A transverse wave, such as an electromagnetic wave like light, as viewed from above and from the side. The direction of propagation is perpendicular to the
wavefronts (or wave crests) and is represented by an arrow like a ray.
The Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens (1629–1695) developed a useful technique for determining in detail how and where waves propagate.
Starting from some known position, Huygens’s principle states that:
957
958
CHAPTER 27 | WAVE OPTICS
Every point on a wavefront is a source of wavelets that spread out in the forward direction at the same speed as the wave itself. The new
wavefront is a line tangent to all of the wavelets.
Figure 27.5 shows how Huygens’s principle is applied. A wavefront is the long edge that moves, for example, the crest or the trough. Each point on
the wavefront emits a semicircular wave that moves at the propagation speed v . These are drawn at a time t later, so that they have moved a
distance s = vt . The new wavefront is a line tangent to the wavelets and is where we would expect the wave to be a time t later. Huygens’s
principle works for all types of waves, including water waves, sound waves, and light waves. We will find it useful not only in describing how light
waves propagate, but also in explaining the laws of reflection and refraction. In addition, we will see that Huygens’s principle tells us how and where
light rays interfere.
Figure 27.5 Huygens’s principle applied to a straight wavefront. Each point on the wavefront emits a semicircular wavelet that moves a distance
s = vt . The new wavefront is
a line tangent to the wavelets.
Figure 27.6 shows how a mirror reflects an incoming wave at an angle equal to the incident angle, verifying the law of reflection. As the wavefront
strikes the mirror, wavelets are first emitted from the left part of the mirror and then the right. The wavelets closer to the left have had time to travel
farther, producing a wavefront traveling in the direction shown.
Figure 27.6 Huygens’s principle applied to a straight wavefront striking a mirror. The wavelets shown were emitted as each point on the wavefront struck the mirror. The
tangent to these wavelets shows that the new wavefront has been reflected at an angle equal to the incident angle. The direction of propagation is perpendicular to the
wavefront, as shown by the downward-pointing arrows.
The law of refraction can be explained by applying Huygens’s principle to a wavefront passing from one medium to another (see Figure 27.7). Each
wavelet in the figure was emitted when the wavefront crossed the interface between the media. Since the speed of light is smaller in the second
medium, the waves do not travel as far in a given time, and the new wavefront changes direction as shown. This explains why a ray changes
direction to become closer to the perpendicular when light slows down. Snell’s law can be derived from the geometry in Figure 27.7, but this is left as
an exercise for ambitious readers.
This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11406/1.7
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