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The Wave Aspect of Light Interference

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The Wave Aspect of Light Interference
956
CHAPTER 27 | WAVE OPTICS
Introduction to Wave Optics
Examine a compact disc under white light, noting the colors observed and locations of the colors. Determine if the spectra are formed by diffraction
from circular lines centered at the middle of the disc and, if so, what is their spacing. If not, determine the type of spacing. Also with the CD, explore
the spectra of a few light sources, such as a candle flame, incandescent bulb, halogen light, and fluorescent light. Knowing the spacing of the rows of
pits in the compact disc, estimate the maximum spacing that will allow the given number of megabytes of information to be stored.
If you have ever looked at the reds, blues, and greens in a sunlit soap bubble and wondered how straw-colored soapy water could produce them, you
have hit upon one of the many phenomena that can only be explained by the wave character of light (see Figure 27.2). The same is true for the
colors seen in an oil slick or in the light reflected from a compact disc. These and other interesting phenomena, such as the dispersion of white light
into a rainbow of colors when passed through a narrow slit, cannot be explained fully by geometric optics. In these cases, light interacts with small
objects and exhibits its wave characteristics. The branch of optics that considers the behavior of light when it exhibits wave characteristics
(particularly when it interacts with small objects) is called wave optics (sometimes called physical optics). It is the topic of this chapter.
Figure 27.2 These soap bubbles exhibit brilliant colors when exposed to sunlight. How are the colors produced if they are not pigments in the soap? (credit: Scott Robinson,
Flickr)
27.1 The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference
We know that visible light is the type of electromagnetic wave to which our eyes respond. Like all other electromagnetic waves, it obeys the equation
c = f λ,
where
(27.1)
c = 3×10 8 m/s is the speed of light in vacuum, f is the frequency of the electromagnetic waves, and λ is its wavelength. The range of
visible wavelengths is approximately 380 to 760 nm. As is true for all waves, light travels in straight lines and acts like a ray when it interacts with
objects several times as large as its wavelength. However, when it interacts with smaller objects, it displays its wave characteristics prominently.
Interference is the hallmark of a wave, and in Figure 27.3 both the ray and wave characteristics of light can be seen. The laser beam emitted by the
observatory epitomizes a ray, traveling in a straight line. However, passing a pure-wavelength beam through vertical slits with a size close to the
wavelength of the beam reveals the wave character of light, as the beam spreads out horizontally into a pattern of bright and dark regions caused by
systematic constructive and destructive interference. Rather than spreading out, a ray would continue traveling straight ahead after passing through
slits.
Making Connections: Waves
The most certain indication of a wave is interference. This wave characteristic is most prominent when the wave interacts with an object that is
not large compared with the wavelength. Interference is observed for water waves, sound waves, light waves, and (as we will see in Special
Relativity) for matter waves, such as electrons scattered from a crystal.
This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11406/1.7
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