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Binding Energy

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Binding Energy
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CHAPTER 31 | RADIOACTIVITY AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS
Discussion
While 70 kg of material may not be a very large mass compared to the amount of fuel in a power plant, it is extremely radioactive, since it only
has a 30-year half-life. Six megacuries (6.0 MCi) is an extraordinary amount of activity but is only a fraction of what is produced in nuclear
reactors. Similar amounts of the other isotopes were also released at Chernobyl. Although the chances of such a disaster may have seemed
small, the consequences were extremely severe, requiring greater caution than was used. More will be said about safe reactor design in the next
chapter, but it should be noted that Western reactors have a fundamentally safer design.
R decreases in time, going to half its original value in one half-life, then to one-fourth its original value in the next half-life, and so on. Since
R = 0.693N
t 1 / 2 , the activity decreases as the number of radioactive nuclei decreases. The equation for R as a function of time is found by combining
Activity
the equations
N = N 0e −λt and R = 0.693N
t 1 / 2 , yielding
R = R 0e −λt,
where
(31.59)
R 0 is the activity at t = 0 . This equation shows exponential decay of radioactive nuclei. For example, if a source originally has a 1.00-mCi
activity, it declines to 0.500 mCi in one half-life, to 0.250 mCi in two half-lives, to 0.125 mCi in three half-lives, and so on. For times other than whole
−λt
must be used to find R .
half-lives, the equation R = R 0e
PhET Explorations: Alpha Decay
Watch alpha particles escape from a polonium nucleus, causing radioactive alpha decay. See how random decay times relate to the half life.
Figure 31.24 Alpha Decay (http://cnx.org/content/m42636/1.5/alpha-decay_en.jar)
31.6 Binding Energy
The more tightly bound a system is, the stronger the forces that hold it together and the greater the energy required to pull it apart. We can therefore
learn about nuclear forces by examining how tightly bound the nuclei are. We define the binding energy (BE) of a nucleus to be the energy required
to completely disassemble it into separate protons and neutrons. We can determine the BE of a nucleus from its rest mass. The two are connected
through Einstein’s famous relationship E = (Δm)c 2 . A bound system has a smaller mass than its separate constituents; the more tightly the
nucleons are bound together, the smaller the mass of the nucleus.
Imagine pulling a nuclide apart as illustrated in Figure 31.25. Work done to overcome the nuclear forces holding the nucleus together puts energy
into the system. By definition, the energy input equals the binding energy BE. The pieces are at rest when separated, and so the energy put into them
increases their total rest mass compared with what it was when they were glued together as a nucleus. That mass increase is thus Δm = BE / c 2 .
This difference in mass is known as mass defect. It implies that the mass of the nucleus is less than the sum of the masses of its constituent protons
and neutrons. A nuclide A X has Z protons and N neutrons, so that the difference in mass is
Δm = (Zm p + Nm n) − m tot.
(31.60)
BE = (Δm)c 2 = [(Zm p + Nm n) − m tot]c 2,
(31.61)
Thus,
where
m tot is the mass of the nuclide
A
X , m p is the mass of a proton, and m n is the mass of a neutron. Traditionally, we deal with the masses
of neutral atoms. To get atomic masses into the last equation, we first add
nuclide. We then add
Z electrons to m tot , which gives m⎛⎝ A X⎞⎠ , the atomic mass of the
Z electrons to the Z protons, which gives Zm⎛⎝1 H⎞⎠ , or Z times the mass of a hydrogen atom. Thus the binding energy of a
nuclide A X is
⎧
⎫
BE = ⎨⎩[Zm( 1 H) + Nm n] − m( A X)⎬⎭c 2.
The atomic masses can be found in Appendix A, most conveniently expressed in unified atomic mass units u ( 1
calculated from known atomic masses.
This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11406/1.7
(31.62)
u = 931.5 MeV / c 2 ). BE is thus
CHAPTER 31 | RADIOACTIVITY AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS
Figure 31.25 Work done to pull a nucleus apart into its constituent protons and neutrons increases the mass of the system. The work to disassemble the nucleus equals its
binding energy BE. A bound system has less mass than the sum of its parts, especially noticeable in the nuclei, where forces and energies are very large.
Things Great and Small
Nuclear Decay Helps Explain Earth’s Hot Interior
A puzzle created by radioactive dating of rocks is resolved by radioactive heating of Earth’s interior. This intriguing story is another example of
how small-scale physics can explain large-scale phenomena.
9
Radioactive dating plays a role in determining the approximate age of the Earth. The oldest rocks on Earth solidified about 3.5×10 years
ago—a number determined by uranium-238 dating. These rocks could only have solidified once the surface of the Earth had cooled sufficiently.
The temperature of the Earth at formation can be estimated based on gravitational potential energy of the assemblage of pieces being converted
to thermal energy. Using heat transfer concepts discussed in Thermodynamics it is then possible to calculate how long it would take for the
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surface to cool to rock-formation temperatures. The result is about 10 years. The first rocks formed have been solid for 3.5×10 years, so
9
that the age of the Earth is approximately 4.5×10 years. There is a large body of other types of evidence (both Earth-bound and solar system
characteristics are used) that supports this age. The puzzle is that, given its age and initial temperature, the center of the Earth should be much
cooler than it is today (see Figure 31.26).
Figure 31.26 The center of the Earth cools by well-known heat transfer methods. Convection in the liquid regions and conduction move thermal energy to the surface,
where it radiates into cold, dark space. Given the age of the Earth and its initial temperature, it should have cooled to a lower temperature by now. The blowup shows that
nuclear decay releases energy in the Earth’s interior. This energy has slowed the cooling process and is responsible for the interior still being molten.
We know from seismic waves produced by earthquakes that parts of the interior of the Earth are liquid. Shear or transverse waves cannot travel
through a liquid and are not transmitted through the Earth’s core. Yet compression or longitudinal waves can pass through a liquid and do go
through the core. From this information, the temperature of the interior can be estimated. As noticed, the interior should have cooled more from
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its initial temperature in the 4.5×10 years since its formation. In fact, it should have taken no more than about 10 years to cool to its
present temperature. What is keeping it hot? The answer seems to be radioactive decay of primordial elements that were part of the material that
formed the Earth (see the blowup in Figure 31.26).
Nuclides such as 238 U and 40 K have half-lives similar to or longer than the age of the Earth, and their decay still contributes energy to the
interior. Some of the primordial radioactive nuclides have unstable decay products that also release energy— 238 U has a long decay chain of
these. Further, there were more of these primordial radioactive nuclides early in the life of the Earth, and thus the activity and energy contributed
were greater then (perhaps by an order of magnitude). The amount of power created by these decays per cubic meter is very small. However,
since a huge volume of material lies deep below the surface, this relatively small amount of energy cannot escape quickly. The power produced
near the surface has much less distance to go to escape and has a negligible effect on surface temperatures.
A final effect of this trapped radiation merits mention. Alpha decay produces helium nuclei, which form helium atoms when they are stopped and
capture electrons. Most of the helium on Earth is obtained from wells and is produced in this manner. Any helium in the atmosphere will escape
in geologically short times because of its high thermal velocity.
What patterns and insights are gained from an examination of the binding energy of various nuclides? First, we find that BE is approximately
proportional to the number of nucleons A in any nucleus. About twice as much energy is needed to pull apart a nucleus like 24 Mg compared with
pulling apart 12 C , for example. To help us look at other effects, we divide BE by
A and consider the binding energy per nucleon, BE / A . The
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CHAPTER 31 | RADIOACTIVITY AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS
BE / A in Figure 31.27 reveals some very interesting aspects of nuclei. We see that the binding energy per nucleon averages about 8
MeV, but is lower for both the lightest and heaviest nuclei. This overall trend, in which nuclei with A equal to about 60 have the greatest BE / A and
graph of
are thus the most tightly bound, is due to the combined characteristics of the attractive nuclear forces and the repulsive Coulomb force. It is especially
important to note two things—the strong nuclear force is about 100 times stronger than the Coulomb force, and the nuclear forces are shorter in
range compared to the Coulomb force. So, for low-mass nuclei, the nuclear attraction dominates and each added nucleon forms bonds with all
others, causing progressively heavier nuclei to have progressively greater values of BE / A . This continues up to A ≈ 60 , roughly corresponding
to the mass number of iron. Beyond that, new nucleons added to a nucleus will be too far from some others to feel their nuclear attraction. Added
protons, however, feel the repulsion of all other protons, since the Coulomb force is longer in range. Coulomb repulsion grows for progressively
heavier nuclei, but nuclear attraction remains about the same, and so BE / A becomes smaller. This is why stable nuclei heavier than A ≈ 40
have more neutrons than protons. Coulomb repulsion is reduced by having more neutrons to keep the protons farther apart (see Figure 31.28).
Figure 31.27 A graph of average binding energy per nucleon,
BE / A , for stable nuclei. The most tightly bound nuclei are those with A
near 60, where the attractive
nuclear force has its greatest effect. At higher A s, the Coulomb repulsion progressively reduces the binding energy per nucleon, because the nuclear force is short ranged.
The spikes on the curve are very tightly bound nuclides and indicate shell closures.
Figure 31.28 The nuclear force is attractive and stronger than the Coulomb force, but it is short ranged. In low-mass nuclei, each nucleon feels the nuclear attraction of all
others. In larger nuclei, the range of the nuclear force, shown for a single nucleon, is smaller than the size of the nucleus, but the Coulomb repulsion from all protons reaches
all others. If the nucleus is large enough, the Coulomb repulsion can add to overcome the nuclear attraction.
There are some noticeable spikes on the BE / A graph, which represent particularly tightly bound nuclei. These spikes reveal further details of
nuclear forces, such as confirming that closed-shell nuclei (those with magic numbers of protons or neutrons or both) are more tightly bound. The
spikes also indicate that some nuclei with even numbers for Z and N , and with Z = N , are exceptionally tightly bound. This finding can be
correlated with some of the cosmic abundances of the elements. The most common elements in the universe, as determined by observations of
atomic spectra from outer space, are hydrogen, followed by 4 He , with much smaller amounts of 12 C and other elements. It should be noted that
the heavier elements are created in supernova explosions, while the lighter ones are produced by nuclear fusion during the normal life cycles of stars,
as will be discussed in subsequent chapters. The most common elements have the most tightly bound nuclei. It is also no accident that one of the
most tightly bound light nuclei is 4 He , emitted in α decay.
Example 31.7 What Is BE / A for an Alpha Particle?
Calculate the binding energy per nucleon of 4 He , the
α particle.
Strategy
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CHAPTER 31 | RADIOACTIVITY AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS
To find
BE / A , we first find BE using the Equation BE = {[Zm( 1 H) + Nm n] − m( A X)}c 2 and then divide by A . This is straightforward
once we have looked up the appropriate atomic masses in Appendix A.
Solution
The binding energy for a nucleus is given by the equation
For 4 He , we have
Since
(31.63)
BE = {[2m( 1 H) + 2m n] − m( 4 He)}c 2.
(31.64)
Z = N = 2 ; thus,
Appendix A gives these masses as
Noting that
BE = {[Zm( 1 H) + Nm n] − m( A X)}c 2.
m( 4 He) = 4.002602 u , m( 1 H) = 1.007825 u , and m n = 1.008665 u . Thus,
BE = (0.030378 u)c 2.
(31.65)
BE = (0.030378)(931.5 MeV/c 2)c 2 = 28.3 MeV.
(31.66)
1 u = 931.5 MeV/c 2 , we find
A = 4 , we see that BE / A is this number divided by 4, or
BE / A = 7.07 MeV/nucleon.
(31.67)
Discussion
This is a large binding energy per nucleon compared with those for other low-mass nuclei, which have BE / A ≈ 3 MeV/nucleon . This
indicates that 4 He is tightly bound compared with its neighbors on the chart of the nuclides. You can see the spike representing this value of
BE / A for
4
He on the graph in Figure 31.27. This is why
4
He is stable. Since
4
He is tightly bound, it has less mass than other A = 4
nuclei and, therefore, cannot spontaneously decay into them. The large binding energy also helps to explain why some nuclei undergo α decay.
Smaller mass in the decay products can mean energy release, and such decays can be spontaneous. Further, it can happen that two protons
and two neutrons in a nucleus can randomly find themselves together, experience the exceptionally large nuclear force that binds this
combination, and act as a 4 He unit within the nucleus, at least for a while. In some cases, the 4 He escapes, and α decay has then taken
place.
There is more to be learned from nuclear binding energies. The general trend in BE / A is fundamental to energy production in stars, and to fusion
and fission energy sources on Earth, for example. This is one of the applications of nuclear physics covered in Medical Applications of Nuclear
Physics. The abundance of elements on Earth, in stars, and in the universe as a whole is related to the binding energy of nuclei and has implications
for the continued expansion of the universe.
Problem-Solving Strategies
For Reaction And Binding Energies and Activity Calculations in Nuclear Physics
1. Identify exactly what needs to be determined in the problem (identify the unknowns). This will allow you to decide whether the energy of a decay
or nuclear reaction is involved, for example, or whether the problem is primarily concerned with activity (rate of decay).
2. Make a list of what is given or can be inferred from the problem as stated (identify the knowns).
3. For reaction and binding-energy problems, we use atomic rather than nuclear masses. Since the masses of neutral atoms are used, you must
+
count the number of electrons involved. If these do not balance (such as in β decay), then an energy adjustment of 0.511 MeV per electron
must be made. Also note that atomic masses may not be given in a problem; they can be found in tables.
4. For problems involving activity, the relationship of activity to half-life, and the number of nuclei given in the equation
R = 0.693N
t 1 / 2 can be very
useful. Owing to the fact that number of nuclei is involved, you will also need to be familiar with moles and Avogadro’s number.
5. Perform the desired calculation; keep careful track of plus and minus signs as well as powers of 10.
6. Check the answer to see if it is reasonable: Does it make sense? Compare your results with worked examples and other information in the text.
(Heeding the advice in Step 5 will also help you to be certain of your result.) You must understand the problem conceptually to be able to
determine whether the numerical result is reasonable.
PhET Explorations: Nuclear Fission
Start a chain reaction, or introduce non-radioactive isotopes to prevent one. Control energy production in a nuclear reactor!
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