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Youngs Double Slit Experiment

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Youngs Double Slit Experiment
CHAPTER 27 | WAVE OPTICS
Figure 27.7 Huygens’s principle applied to a straight wavefront traveling from one medium to another where its speed is less. The ray bends toward the perpendicular, since
the wavelets have a lower speed in the second medium.
What happens when a wave passes through an opening, such as light shining through an open door into a dark room? For light, we expect to see a
sharp shadow of the doorway on the floor of the room, and we expect no light to bend around corners into other parts of the room. When sound
passes through a door, we expect to hear it everywhere in the room and, thus, expect that sound spreads out when passing through such an opening
(see Figure 27.8). What is the difference between the behavior of sound waves and light waves in this case? The answer is that light has very short
wavelengths and acts like a ray. Sound has wavelengths on the order of the size of the door and bends around corners (for frequency of 1000 Hz,
λ = c / f = (330 m / s) / (1000 s −1 ) = 0.33 m , about three times smaller than the width of the doorway).
Figure 27.8 (a) Light passing through a doorway makes a sharp outline on the floor. Since light’s wavelength is very small compared with the size of the door, it acts like a ray.
(b) Sound waves bend into all parts of the room, a wave effect, because their wavelength is similar to the size of the door.
If we pass light through smaller openings, often called slits, we can use Huygens’s principle to see that light bends as sound does (see Figure 27.9).
The bending of a wave around the edges of an opening or an obstacle is called diffraction. Diffraction is a wave characteristic and occurs for all
types of waves. If diffraction is observed for some phenomenon, it is evidence that the phenomenon is a wave. Thus the horizontal diffraction of the
laser beam after it passes through slits in Figure 27.3 is evidence that light is a wave.
Figure 27.9 Huygens’s principle applied to a straight wavefront striking an opening. The edges of the wavefront bend after passing through the opening, a process called
diffraction. The amount of bending is more extreme for a small opening, consistent with the fact that wave characteristics are most noticeable for interactions with objects about
the same size as the wavelength.
27.3 Young’s Double Slit Experiment
Although Christiaan Huygens thought that light was a wave, Isaac Newton did not. Newton felt that there were other explanations for color, and for
the interference and diffraction effects that were observable at the time. Owing to Newton’s tremendous stature, his view generally prevailed. The fact
that Huygens’s principle worked was not considered evidence that was direct enough to prove that light is a wave. The acceptance of the wave
character of light came many years later when, in 1801, the English physicist and physician Thomas Young (1773–1829) did his now-classic double
slit experiment (see Figure 27.10).
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CHAPTER 27 | WAVE OPTICS
Figure 27.10 Young’s double slit experiment. Here pure-wavelength light sent through a pair of vertical slits is diffracted into a pattern on the screen of numerous vertical lines
spread out horizontally. Without diffraction and interference, the light would simply make two lines on the screen.
Why do we not ordinarily observe wave behavior for light, such as observed in Young’s double slit experiment? First, light must interact with
something small, such as the closely spaced slits used by Young, to show pronounced wave effects. Furthermore, Young first passed light from a
single source (the Sun) through a single slit to make the light somewhat coherent. By coherent, we mean waves are in phase or have a definite
phase relationship. Incoherent means the waves have random phase relationships. Why did Young then pass the light through a double slit? The
answer to this question is that two slits provide two coherent light sources that then interfere constructively or destructively. Young used sunlight,
where each wavelength forms its own pattern, making the effect more difficult to see. We illustrate the double slit experiment with monochromatic
(single λ ) light to clarify the effect. Figure 27.11 shows the pure constructive and destructive interference of two waves having the same wavelength
and amplitude.
Figure 27.11 The amplitudes of waves add. (a) Pure constructive interference is obtained when identical waves are in phase. (b) Pure destructive interference occurs when
identical waves are exactly out of phase, or shifted by half a wavelength.
When light passes through narrow slits, it is diffracted into semicircular waves, as shown in Figure 27.12(a). Pure constructive interference occurs
where the waves are crest to crest or trough to trough. Pure destructive interference occurs where they are crest to trough. The light must fall on a
screen and be scattered into our eyes for us to see the pattern. An analogous pattern for water waves is shown in Figure 27.12(b). Note that regions
of constructive and destructive interference move out from the slits at well-defined angles to the original beam. These angles depend on wavelength
and the distance between the slits, as we shall see below.
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CHAPTER 27 | WAVE OPTICS
Figure 27.12 Double slits produce two coherent sources of waves that interfere. (a) Light spreads out (diffracts) from each slit, because the slits are narrow. These waves
overlap and interfere constructively (bright lines) and destructively (dark regions). We can only see this if the light falls onto a screen and is scattered into our eyes. (b) Double
slit interference pattern for water waves are nearly identical to that for light. Wave action is greatest in regions of constructive interference and least in regions of destructive
interference. (c) When light that has passed through double slits falls on a screen, we see a pattern such as this. (credit: PASCO)
To understand the double slit interference pattern, we consider how two waves travel from the slits to the screen, as illustrated in Figure 27.13. Each
slit is a different distance from a given point on the screen. Thus different numbers of wavelengths fit into each path. Waves start out from the slits in
phase (crest to crest), but they may end up out of phase (crest to trough) at the screen if the paths differ in length by half a wavelength, interfering
destructively as shown in Figure 27.13(a). If the paths differ by a whole wavelength, then the waves arrive in phase (crest to crest) at the screen,
interfering constructively as shown in Figure 27.13(b). More generally, if the paths taken by the two waves differ by any half-integral number of
wavelengths [ (1 / 2)λ , (3 / 2)λ , (5 / 2)λ , etc.], then destructive interference occurs. Similarly, if the paths taken by the two waves differ by any
integral number of wavelengths ( λ ,
2λ , 3λ , etc.), then constructive interference occurs.
Take-Home Experiment: Using Fingers as Slits
Look at a light, such as a street lamp or incandescent bulb, through the narrow gap between two fingers held close together. What type of pattern
do you see? How does it change when you allow the fingers to move a little farther apart? Is it more distinct for a monochromatic source, such as
the yellow light from a sodium vapor lamp, than for an incandescent bulb?
Figure 27.13 Waves follow different paths from the slits to a common point on a screen. (a) Destructive interference occurs here, because one path is a half wavelength longer
than the other. The waves start in phase but arrive out of phase. (b) Constructive interference occurs here because one path is a whole wavelength longer than the other. The
waves start out and arrive in phase.
Figure 27.14 shows how to determine the path length difference for waves traveling from two slits to a common point on a screen. If the screen is a
large distance away compared with the distance between the slits, then the angle θ between the path and a line from the slits to the screen (see the
d sin θ , where
d is the distance between the slits. To obtain constructive interference for a double slit, the path length difference must be an integral multiple of
figure) is nearly the same for each path. The difference between the paths is shown in the figure; simple trigonometry shows it to be
the wavelength, or
d sin θ = mλ, for m = 0, 1, −1, 2, −2, … (constructive).
(27.3)
Similarly, to obtain destructive interference for a double slit, the path length difference must be a half-integral multiple of the wavelength, or
⎛
⎞
d sin θ = ⎝m + 1 ⎠λ, for m = 0, 1, −1, 2, −2, … (destructive),
2
where
λ is the wavelength of the light, d is the distance between slits, and θ is the angle from the original direction of the beam as discussed
m the order of the interference. For example, m = 4 is fourth-order interference.
above. We call
(27.4)
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CHAPTER 27 | WAVE OPTICS
Figure 27.14 The paths from each slit to a common point on the screen differ by an amount
between slits (not to scale here).
d sin θ , assuming the distance to the screen is much greater than the distance
The equations for double slit interference imply that a series of bright and dark lines are formed. For vertical slits, the light spreads out horizontally on
either side of the incident beam into a pattern called interference fringes, illustrated in Figure 27.15. The intensity of the bright fringes falls off on
either side, being brightest at the center. The closer the slits are, the more is the spreading of the bright fringes. We can see this by examining the
equation
d sin θ = mλ, for m = 0, 1, −1, 2, −2, … .
For fixed
(27.5)
λ and m , the smaller d is, the larger θ must be, since sin θ = mλ / d . This is consistent with our contention that wave effects are
d apart) is small. Small d gives large θ , hence a large effect.
most noticeable when the object the wave encounters (here, slits a distance
Figure 27.15 The interference pattern for a double slit has an intensity that falls off with angle. The photograph shows multiple bright and dark lines, or fringes, formed by light
passing through a double slit.
Example 27.1 Finding a Wavelength from an Interference Pattern
Suppose you pass light from a He-Ne laser through two slits separated by 0.0100 mm and find that the third bright line on a screen is formed at
an angle of 10.95º relative to the incident beam. What is the wavelength of the light?
Strategy
m = 3 . We are given d = 0.0100 mm and θ = 10.95º .
d sin θ = mλ for constructive interference.
The third bright line is due to third-order constructive interference, which means that
The wavelength can thus be found using the equation
Solution
The equation is
d sin θ = mλ . Solving for the wavelength λ gives
sin θ .
λ= d m
(27.6)
Substituting known values yields
(0.0100 mm)(sin 10.95º)
3
−4
= 6.33×10 mm = 633 nm.
λ =
(27.7)
Discussion
To three digits, this is the wavelength of light emitted by the common He-Ne laser. Not by coincidence, this red color is similar to that emitted by
neon lights. More important, however, is the fact that interference patterns can be used to measure wavelength. Young did this for visible
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