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RLC Series AC Circuits

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RLC Series AC Circuits
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CHAPTER 23 | ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION, AC CIRCUITS, AND ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGIES
the most, since low frequency allows them time to become charged and stop the current. Capacitors can be used to filter out low frequencies.
For example, a capacitor in series with a sound reproduction system rids it of the 60 Hz hum.
Although a capacitor is basically an open circuit, there is an rms current in a circuit with an AC voltage applied to a capacitor. This is because the
voltage is continually reversing, charging and discharging the capacitor. If the frequency goes to zero (DC), X C tends to infinity, and the current is
zero once the capacitor is charged. At very high frequencies, the capacitor’s reactance tends to zero—it has a negligible reactance and does not
impede the current (it acts like a simple wire). Capacitors have the opposite effect on AC circuits that inductors have.
Resistors in an AC Circuit
Just as a reminder, consider Figure 23.47, which shows an AC voltage applied to a resistor and a graph of voltage and current versus time. The
voltage and current are exactly in phase in a resistor. There is no frequency dependence to the behavior of plain resistance in a circuit:
Figure 23.47 (a) An AC voltage source in series with a resistor. (b) Graph of current and voltage across the resistor as functions of time, showing them to be exactly in phase.
AC Voltage in a Resistor
When a sinusoidal voltage is applied to a resistor, the voltage is exactly in phase with the current—they have a
0º phase angle.
23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits
Impedance
When alone in an AC circuit, inductors, capacitors, and resistors all impede current. How do they behave when all three occur together? Interestingly,
their individual resistances in ohms do not simply add. Because inductors and capacitors behave in opposite ways, they partially to totally cancel
each other’s effect. Figure 23.48 shows an RLC series circuit with an AC voltage source, the behavior of which is the subject of this section. The crux
of the analysis of an RLC circuit is the frequency dependence of X L and X C , and the effect they have on the phase of voltage versus current
(established in the preceding section). These give rise to the frequency dependence of the circuit, with important “resonance” features that are the
basis of many applications, such as radio tuners.
Figure 23.48 An RLC series circuit with an AC voltage source.
The combined effect of resistance
R , inductive reactance X L , and capacitive reactance X C is defined to be impedance, an AC analogue to
resistance in a DC circuit. Current, voltage, and impedance in an RLC circuit are related by an AC version of Ohm’s law:
I0 =
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V0
V
or I rms = rms .
Z
Z
(23.63)
CHAPTER 23 | ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION, AC CIRCUITS, AND ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGIES
Here
I 0 is the peak current, V 0 the peak source voltage, and Z is the impedance of the circuit. The units of impedance are ohms, and its effect on
the circuit is as you might expect: the greater the impedance, the smaller the current. To get an expression for
Z in terms of R , X L , and X C , we
will now examine how the voltages across the various components are related to the source voltage. Those voltages are labeled
V R , V L , and V C
in Figure 23.48.
Conservation of charge requires current to be the same in each part of the circuit at all times, so that we can say the currents in
equal and in phase. But we know from the preceding section that the voltage across the inductor
voltage across the capacitor
R , L , and C are
V L leads the current by one-fourth of a cycle, the
V C follows the current by one-fourth of a cycle, and the voltage across the resistor V R is exactly in phase with the
current. Figure 23.49 shows these relationships in one graph, as well as showing the total voltage around the circuit
four voltages are the instantaneous values. According to Kirchhoff’s loop rule, the total voltage around the circuit
You can see from Figure 23.49 that while
V = V R + V L + V C , where all
V is also the voltage of the source.
V R is in phase with the current, V L leads by 90º , and V C follows by 90º . Thus V L and V C are
180º out of phase (crest to trough) and tend to cancel, although not completely unless they have the same magnitude. Since the peak voltages are
not aligned (not in phase), the peak voltage V 0 of the source does not equal the sum of the peak voltages across R , L , and C . The actual
relationship is
(23.64)
V 0 = V 0R 2 +(V 0L − V 0C) 2,
where
V 0R , V 0L , and V 0C are the peak voltages across R , L , and C , respectively. Now, using Ohm’s law and definitions from Reactance,
Inductive and Capacitive, we substitute
V 0 = I 0Z into the above, as well as V 0R = I 0R , V 0L = I 0X L , and V 0C = I 0X C , yielding
I 0 Z = I 0 2 R 2 + (I 0 X L − I 0X C ) 2 = I 0 R 2 + (X L − X C) 2.
(23.65)
I 0 cancels to yield an expression for Z :
Z = R 2 + (X L − X C) 2,
which is the impedance of an RLC series AC circuit. For circuits without a resistor, take
those without a capacitor, take
(23.66)
R = 0 ; for those without an inductor, take X L = 0 ; and for
XC = 0 .
Figure 23.49 This graph shows the relationships of the voltages in an RLC circuit to the current. The voltages across the circuit elements add to equal the voltage of the
source, which is seen to be out of phase with the current.
Example 23.12 Calculating Impedance and Current
40.0 Ω resistor, a 3.00 mH inductor, and a 5.00 µF capacitor. (a) Find the circuit’s impedance at 60.0 Hz and 10.0
kHz, noting that these frequencies and the values for L and C are the same as in Example 23.10 and Example 23.11. (b) If the voltage
source has V rms = 120 V , what is I rms at each frequency?
An RLC series circuit has a
Strategy
For each frequency, we use
Z = R 2 + (X L − X C) 2 to find the impedance and then Ohm’s law to find current. We can take advantage of the
results of the previous two examples rather than calculate the reactances again.
Solution for (a)
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At 60.0 Hz, the values of the reactances were found in Example 23.10 to be
Entering these and the given
X L = 1.13 Ω and in Example 23.11 to be X C = 531 Ω .
40.0 Ω for resistance into Z = R 2 + (X L − X C) 2 yields
Z =
(23.67)
R 2 + (X L − X C) 2
= (40.0 Ω ) 2 + (1.13 Ω − 531 Ω ) 2
= 531 Ω at 60.0 Hz.
Similarly, at 10.0 kHz,
X L = 188 Ω and X C = 3.18 Ω , so that
Z = (40.0 Ω ) 2 + (188 Ω − 3.18 Ω ) 2
= 190 Ω at 10.0 kHz.
(23.68)
Discussion for (a)
In both cases, the result is nearly the same as the largest value, and the impedance is definitely not the sum of the individual values. It is clear
that X L dominates at high frequency and X C dominates at low frequency.
Solution for (b)
The current
I rms =
I rms can be found using the AC version of Ohm’s law in Equation I rms = V rms / Z :
V rms
= 120 V = 0.226 A at 60.0 Hz
Z
531 Ω
Finally, at 10.0 kHz, we find
I rms =
V rms
= 120 V = 0.633 A at 10.0 kHz
Z
190 Ω
Discussion for (a)
The current at 60.0 Hz is the same (to three digits) as found for the capacitor alone in Example 23.11. The capacitor dominates at low frequency.
The current at 10.0 kHz is only slightly different from that found for the inductor alone in Example 23.10. The inductor dominates at high
frequency.
Resonance in RLC Series AC Circuits
How does an RLC circuit behave as a function of the frequency of the driving voltage source? Combining Ohm’s law,
expression for impedance
Z from Z = R 2 + (X L − X C) 2 gives
I rms =
The reactances vary with frequency, with
V rms
2
R + (X L − X C)
2
.
f 0 , the reactances will be equal and cancel, giving Z = R —this is a minimum value for impedance,
I rms results. We can get an expression for f 0 by taking
X L = X C.
Substituting the definitions of
1 .
2πf 0 C
(23.71)
f 0 yields
f0 =
where
(23.70)
X L and X C ,
2πf 0 L =
Solving this expression for
(23.69)
X L large at high frequencies and X C large at low frequencies, as we have seen in three previous
examples. At some intermediate frequency
and a maximum value for
I rms = V rms / Z , and the
1 ,
2π LC
(23.72)
f 0 is the resonant frequency of an RLC series circuit. This is also the natural frequency at which the circuit would oscillate if not driven by
the voltage source. At
f 0 , the effects of the inductor and capacitor cancel, so that Z = R , and I rms is a maximum.
Resonance in AC circuits is analogous to mechanical resonance, where resonance is defined to be a forced oscillation—in this case, forced by the
voltage source—at the natural frequency of the system. The receiver in a radio is an RLC circuit that oscillates best at its f 0 . A variable capacitor is
often used to adjust
a resonant peak in
f 0 to receive a desired frequency and to reject others. Figure 23.50 is a graph of current as a function of frequency, illustrating
I rms at f 0 . The two curves are for two different circuits, which differ only in the amount of resistance in them. The peak is lower
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CHAPTER 23 | ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION, AC CIRCUITS, AND ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGIES
and broader for the higher-resistance circuit. Thus the higher-resistance circuit does not resonate as strongly and would not be as selective in a radio
receiver, for example.
Figure 23.50 A graph of current versus frequency for two RLC series circuits differing only in the amount of resistance. Both have a resonance at
resistance is lower and broader. The driving AC voltage source has a fixed amplitude
V0 .
f 0 , but that for the higher
Example 23.13 Calculating Resonant Frequency and Current
For the same RLC series circuit having a
Calculate
40.0 Ω resistor, a 3.00 mH inductor, and a 5.00 µF capacitor: (a) Find the resonant frequency. (b)
I rms at resonance if V rms is 120 V.
Strategy
The resonant frequency is found by using the expression in
f0 =
1 . The current at that frequency is the same as if the resistor alone
2π LC
were in the circuit.
Solution for (a)
Entering the given values for
L and C into the expression given for f 0 in f 0 =
f0 =
=
1
2π LC
1
yields
2π LC
(23.73)
2π (3.00×10
−3
1
= 1.30 kHz.
H)(5.00×10 −6 F)
Discussion for (a)
We see that the resonant frequency is between 60.0 Hz and 10.0 kHz, the two frequencies chosen in earlier examples. This was to be expected,
since the capacitor dominated at the low frequency and the inductor dominated at the high frequency. Their effects are the same at this
intermediate frequency.
Solution for (b)
The current is given by Ohm’s law. At resonance, the two reactances are equal and cancel, so that the impedance equals the resistance alone.
Thus,
I rms =
V rms
= 120 V = 3.00 A.
Z
40.0 Ω
(23.74)
Discussion for (b)
At resonance, the current is greater than at the higher and lower frequencies considered for the same circuit in the preceding example.
Power in RLC Series AC Circuits
If current varies with frequency in an RLC circuit, then the power delivered to it also varies with frequency. But the average power is not simply
current times voltage, as it is in purely resistive circuits. As was seen in Figure 23.49, voltage and current are out of phase in an RLC circuit. There is
a phase angle ϕ between the source voltage V and the current I , which can be found from
cos ϕ = R .
Z
For example, at the resonant frequency or in a purely resistive circuit
(23.75)
Z = R , so that cos ϕ = 1 . This implies that ϕ = 0 º and that voltage and
current are in phase, as expected for resistors. At other frequencies, average power is less than at resonance. This is both because voltage and
current are out of phase and because I rms is lower. The fact that source voltage and current are out of phase affects the power delivered to the
circuit. It can be shown that the average power is
P ave = I rmsV rms cos ϕ,
(23.76)
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cos ϕ is called the power factor, which can range from 0 to 1. Power factors near 1 are desirable when designing an efficient motor, for
example. At the resonant frequency, cos ϕ = 1 .
Thus
Example 23.14 Calculating the Power Factor and Power
For the same RLC series circuit having a
40.0 Ω resistor, a 3.00 mH inductor, a 5.00 µF capacitor, and a voltage source with a V rms of 120
V: (a) Calculate the power factor and phase angle for
f = 60.0Hz . (b) What is the average power at 50.0 Hz? (c) Find the average power at
the circuit’s resonant frequency.
Strategy and Solution for (a)
The power factor at 60.0 Hz is found from
We know
cos ϕ = R .
Z
(23.77)
cos ϕ = 40.0 Ω = 0.0753 at 60.0 Hz.
531 Ω
(23.78)
Z= 531 Ω from Example 23.12, so that
This small value indicates the voltage and current are significantly out of phase. In fact, the phase angle is
ϕ = cos −1 0.0753 = 85.7º at 60.0 Hz.
(23.79)
Discussion for (a)
90º , consistent with the fact that the capacitor dominates the circuit at this low frequency (a pure RC circuit has its
90º out of phase).
The phase angle is close to
voltage and current
Strategy and Solution for (b)
The average power at 60.0 Hz is
P ave = I rmsV rms cos ϕ.
(23.80)
I rms was found to be 0.226 A in Example 23.12. Entering the known values gives
P ave = (0.226 A)(120 V)(0.0753) = 2.04 W at 60.0 Hz.
(23.81)
Strategy and Solution for (c)
At the resonant frequency, we know
cos ϕ = 1 , and I rms was found to be 6.00 A in Example 23.13. Thus,
P ave = (3.00 A)(120 V)(1) = 360 W at resonance (1.30 kHz)
Discussion
Both the current and the power factor are greater at resonance, producing significantly greater power than at higher and lower frequencies.
Power delivered to an RLC series AC circuit is dissipated by the resistance alone. The inductor and capacitor have energy input and output but do
not dissipate it out of the circuit. Rather they transfer energy back and forth to one another, with the resistor dissipating exactly what the voltage
source puts into the circuit. This assumes no significant electromagnetic radiation from the inductor and capacitor, such as radio waves. Such
radiation can happen and may even be desired, as we will see in the next chapter on electromagnetic radiation, but it can also be suppressed as is
the case in this chapter. The circuit is analogous to the wheel of a car driven over a corrugated road as shown in Figure 23.51. The regularly spaced
bumps in the road are analogous to the voltage source, driving the wheel up and down. The shock absorber is analogous to the resistance damping
and limiting the amplitude of the oscillation. Energy within the system goes back and forth between kinetic (analogous to maximum current, and
energy stored in an inductor) and potential energy stored in the car spring (analogous to no current, and energy stored in the electric field of a
capacitor). The amplitude of the wheels’ motion is a maximum if the bumps in the road are hit at the resonant frequency.
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CHAPTER 23 | ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION, AC CIRCUITS, AND ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGIES
Figure 23.51 The forced but damped motion of the wheel on the car spring is analogous to an RLC series AC circuit. The shock absorber damps the motion and dissipates
energy, analogous to the resistance in an RLC circuit. The mass and spring determine the resonant frequency.
A pure LC circuit with negligible resistance oscillates at
f 0 , the same resonant frequency as an RLC circuit. It can serve as a frequency standard or
clock circuit—for example, in a digital wristwatch. With a very small resistance, only a very small energy input is necessary to maintain the
oscillations. The circuit is analogous to a car with no shock absorbers. Once it starts oscillating, it continues at its natural frequency for some time.
Figure 23.52 shows the analogy between an LC circuit and a mass on a spring.
Figure 23.52 An LC circuit is analogous to a mass oscillating on a spring with no friction and no driving force. Energy moves back and forth between the inductor and
capacitor, just as it moves from kinetic to potential in the mass-spring system.
PhET Explorations: Circuit Construction Kit (AC+DC), Virtual Lab
Build circuits with capacitors, inductors, resistors and AC or DC voltage sources, and inspect them using lab instruments such as voltmeters and
ammeters.
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