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Vision Correction

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Vision Correction
CHAPTER 26 | VISION AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS
For clear vision, the image must be on the retina, and so
d i = 2.00 cm here. For distant vision, d o ≈ ∞ , and for close vision,
d o = 25.0 cm , as discussed earlier. The equation P = 1 + 1 as written just above, can be used directly to solve for P in both cases,
do di
since we know
d i and d o . Power has units of diopters, where 1 D = 1/m , and so we should express all distances in meters.
Solution
For distant vision,
Since
1 +
1
P= 1 + 1 = ∞
.
0.0200 m
do di
(26.6)
P = 0 + 50.0 / m = 50.0 D (distant vision).
(26.7)
1 / ∞ = 0 , this gives
Now, for close vision,
1 + 1 =
1
1
+
d o d i 0.250 m 0.0200 m
50.0
= 4.00
m + m = 4.00 D + 50.0 D
= 54.0 D (close vision).
P =
(26.8)
Discussion
For an eye with this typical 2.00 cm lens-to-retina distance, the power of the eye ranges from 50.0 D (for distant totally relaxed vision) to 54.0 D
(for close fully accommodated vision), which is an 8% increase. This increase in power for close vision is consistent with the preceding
discussion and the ray tracing in Figure 26.4. An 8% ability to accommodate is considered normal but is typical for people who are about 40
years old. Younger people have greater accommodation ability, whereas older people gradually lose the ability to accommodate. When an
optometrist identifies accommodation as a problem in elder people, it is most likely due to stiffening of the lens. The lens of the eye changes with
age in ways that tend to preserve the ability to see distant objects clearly but do not allow the eye to accommodate for close vision, a condition
called presbyopia (literally, elder eye). To correct this vision defect, we place a converging, positive power lens in front of the eye, such as found
in reading glasses. Commonly available reading glasses are rated by their power in diopters, typically ranging from 1.0 to 3.5 D.
26.2 Vision Correction
The need for some type of vision correction is very common. Common vision defects are easy to understand, and some are simple to correct. Figure
26.5 illustrates two common vision defects. Nearsightedness, or myopia, is the inability to see distant objects clearly while close objects are clear.
The eye overconverges the nearly parallel rays from a distant object, and the rays cross in front of the retina. More divergent rays from a close object
are converged on the retina for a clear image. The distance to the farthest object that can be seen clearly is called the far point of the eye (normally
infinity). Farsightedness, or hyperopia, is the inability to see close objects clearly while distant objects may be clear. A farsighted eye does not
converge sufficient rays from a close object to make the rays meet on the retina. Less diverging rays from a distant object can be converged for a
clear image. The distance to the closest object that can be seen clearly is called the near point of the eye (normally 25 cm).
Figure 26.5 (a) The nearsighted (myopic) eye converges rays from a distant object in front of the retina; thus, they are diverging when they strike the retina, producing a blurry
image. This can be caused by the lens of the eye being too powerful or the length of the eye being too great. (b) The farsighted (hyperopic) eye is unable to converge the rays
from a close object by the time they strike the retina, producing blurry close vision. This can be caused by insufficient power in the lens or by the eye being too short.
Since the nearsighted eye over converges light rays, the correction for nearsightedness is to place a diverging spectacle lens in front of the eye. This
reduces the power of an eye that is too powerful. Another way of thinking about this is that a diverging spectacle lens produces a case 3 image,
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CHAPTER 26 | VISION AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS
which is closer to the eye than the object (see Figure 26.6). To determine the spectacle power needed for correction, you must know the person’s far
point—that is, you must know the greatest distance at which the person can see clearly. Then the image produced by a spectacle lens must be at this
distance or closer for the nearsighted person to be able to see it clearly. It is worth noting that wearing glasses does not change the eye in any way.
The eyeglass lens is simply used to create an image of the object at a distance where the nearsighted person can see it clearly. Whereas someone
not wearing glasses can see clearly objects that fall between their near point and their far point, someone wearing glasses can see images that fall
between their near point and their far point.
Figure 26.6 Correction of nearsightedness requires a diverging lens that compensates for the overconvergence by the eye. The diverging lens produces an image closer to
the eye than the object, so that the nearsighted person can see it clearly.
Example 26.3 Correcting Nearsightedness
What power of spectacle lens is needed to correct the vision of a nearsighted person whose far point is 30.0 cm? Assume the spectacle
(corrective) lens is held 1.50 cm away from the eye by eyeglass frames.
Strategy
You want this nearsighted person to be able to see very distant objects clearly. That means the spectacle lens must produce an image 30.0 cm
from the eye for an object very far away. An image 30.0 cm from the eye will be 28.5 cm to the left of the spectacle lens (see Figure 26.6).
Therefore, we must get d i = −28.5 cm when d o ≈ ∞ . The image distance is negative, because it is on the same side of the spectacle as
the object.
Solution
Since
Since
d i and d o are known, the power of the spectacle lens can be found using P = 1 + 1 as written earlier:
do di
1 +
1
P= 1 + 1 = ∞
.
do di
−0.285 m
(26.9)
P = 0 − 3.51 / m = −3.51 D.
(26.10)
1/ ∞ = 0 , we obtain:
Discussion
The negative power indicates a diverging (or concave) lens, as expected. The spectacle produces a case 3 image closer to the eye, where the
person can see it. If you examine eyeglasses for nearsighted people, you will find the lenses are thinnest in the center. Additionally, if you
examine a prescription for eyeglasses for nearsighted people, you will find that the prescribed power is negative and given in units of diopters.
Since the farsighted eye under converges light rays, the correction for farsightedness is to place a converging spectacle lens in front of the eye. This
increases the power of an eye that is too weak. Another way of thinking about this is that a converging spectacle lens produces a case 2 image,
which is farther from the eye than the object (see Figure 26.7). To determine the spectacle power needed for correction, you must know the person’s
near point—that is, you must know the smallest distance at which the person can see clearly. Then the image produced by a spectacle lens must be
at this distance or farther for the farsighted person to be able to see it clearly.
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CHAPTER 26 | VISION AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS
Figure 26.7 Correction of farsightedness uses a converging lens that compensates for the under convergence by the eye. The converging lens produces an image farther from
the eye than the object, so that the farsighted person can see it clearly.
Example 26.4 Correcting Farsightedness
What power of spectacle lens is needed to allow a farsighted person, whose near point is 1.00 m, to see an object clearly that is 25.0 cm away?
Assume the spectacle (corrective) lens is held 1.50 cm away from the eye by eyeglass frames.
Strategy
When an object is held 25.0 cm from the person’s eyes, the spectacle lens must produce an image 1.00 m away (the near point). An image 1.00
m from the eye will be 98.5 cm to the left of the spectacle lens because the spectacle lens is 1.50 cm from the eye (see Figure 26.7). Therefore,
d i = −98.5 cm . The image distance is negative, because it is on the same side of the spectacle as the object. The object is 23.5 cm to the left
of the spectacle, so that
d o = 23.5 cm .
Solution
Since
d i and d o are known, the power of the spectacle lens can be found using P = 1 + 1 :
do di
1 + 1 =
1
1
+
d o d i 0.235 m − 0.985 m
= 4.26 D − 1.02 D = 3.24 D.
P =
(26.11)
Discussion
The positive power indicates a converging (convex) lens, as expected. The convex spectacle produces a case 2 image farther from the eye,
where the person can see it. If you examine eyeglasses of farsighted people, you will find the lenses to be thickest in the center. In addition, a
prescription of eyeglasses for farsighted people has a prescribed power that is positive.
Another common vision defect is astigmatism, an unevenness or asymmetry in the focus of the eye. For example, rays passing through a vertical
region of the eye may focus closer than rays passing through a horizontal region, resulting in the image appearing elongated. This is mostly due to
irregularities in the shape of the cornea but can also be due to lens irregularities or unevenness in the retina. Because of these irregularities, different
parts of the lens system produce images at different locations. The eye-brain system can compensate for some of these irregularities, but they
generally manifest themselves as less distinct vision or sharper images along certain axes. Figure 26.8 shows a chart used to detect astigmatism.
Astigmatism can be at least partially corrected with a spectacle having the opposite irregularity of the eye. If an eyeglass prescription has a cylindrical
correction, it is there to correct astigmatism. The normal corrections for short- or farsightedness are spherical corrections, uniform along all axes.
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