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ジャンボペール PE700K キャスターなし 【ゴミ箱
Analysis of Various Parameters of Self-excited Induction
Generator Using MATLAB/GUI
Deeksha Choudhary1, Dr. Deepika Masand2
1
2
Deeksha Choudhary, M. Tech Scholar, Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, OIST, Bhopal
Dr. Deepika Masand, Professor & Head, Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, OIST, Bhopal
Self-excited induction generators are good candidates for
wind powered electric generation application specially in
remote areas, because they do not need external power
supply to produce the magnetic field. Permanent magnet
generators can also be used for wind energy applications
but they suffer from uncontrollable magnetic field, which
decays over a period due to weakening of the magnets,
and the generated voltage tends to fall steeply with load.
The SEIG has a self-protection mechanism because the
voltage collapses when there is a short circuit at its
terminals. Further, the SEIGs have more advantages such
as cost, reduced maintenance, rugged and simple
construction, brush-less rotor (squirrel cage), etc.
Abstract-
In contrast to conventional generators, selfexcited induction generators are found to be most suitable
machines for energizing isolated locations using locally
available renewable energy. This paper presents the analysis
of a normal three-phase induction motor as a self-excited
induction generator (SEIG) to feed single phase loads. Three
Capacitor topology was considered for the star connected
machine. In this paper the complete evaluation of steadystate behavior of SEIG under different operating conditions
is done by user friendly software based solution. The
mathematical modeling of the machine is carried out and
then simulated in MATLAB’s Graphical User Interface
(GUI) environment and active windows are created with
these models. Various parameters are stimulated through
presented methodology and have shown close agreement
with experimental results thus validating the performance of
this software tool.
In several papers, it has been reported that the value of
magnetizing reactance verses air-gap voltage is given as a
constant for the unsaturated, low value of air-gap voltage,
and then decreases when it saturates [5-8]. However, this
representation does not reflect the actual variation of
magnetizing inductance and as a result it does not show
the actual phenomena during the initiation of selfexcitation.
Keywords – Self Excited Induction Generator (SEIG), Graphical
User Interface (GUI), Capacitor Estimation, MATLAB
simulation, Single phase operation insert
I. INTRODUCTION
It is well known that when capacitors are connected
across the stator terminals of an induction machine,
driven by an external prime mover, voltage will be
induced at its terminals [1]. The induced emf and current
in the stator windings will continue to rise until steady
state is attained, influenced by the magnetic saturation of
the machine. At this operating point the voltage and
current will continue to oscillate at a given peak value and
frequency. In order for self-excitation to occur, for a
particular capacitance value there is a corresponding
minimum speed [2-4].
The magnetizing inductance should be represented in
such a way that it depicts the actual value for each
voltage. The characteristics of the magnetizing inductance
as the air gap voltage increases from zero is that it starts at
a given value, increases until it reaches its maximum
value and then starts to decrease up to its rated value,
which is a saturated value. The reason for this variation in
magnetizing reactance and the effect on self-excitation is
discussed in this paper. As the magnetizing reactance, Xm,
is dependent on frequency, magnetizing inductance, Lm, is
used in the analysis.
© 2013 Copyright IRJEAS. All Rights Reserved
35
International Research Journal of Engineering & Applied Sciences
www.irjeas.com, ISSN: 2322-0821, Volume 1, Issue 4, Oct. 2013 – Dec. 2013, Page 35-42
Wang et al [9] and others [10, 11] proposed an analysis to
predict both minimum and maximum values of
capacitance required for self-excitation of a three phase
induction generator. Economically and technically it is
not advisable to choose the maximum value of
capacitance.
II. ANALYSIS AND MODELLING OF THREE
PHASE SEIG FOR SINGLE PHASE LOAD
A.
STAR CONNECTED MACHINE
This is due to the fact that for the same voltage rating the
higher capacitance value will cost more. In addition, if the
higher capacitance value is chosen then there is a
possibility that the current flowing in the capacitor might
exceed the rated current of the stator, due to the fact that
the capacitive reactance reduces as the capacitance value
increases.
Our objective is to provide quality power at constant
voltage and frequency to the consumer, appropriate
system design has to be effected for different types of
prime movers and loads at suitable power ratings.
Fig. 2.1 Three-phase SEIG Feeding Three Phase
Unbalanced/ Balanced Load
This requires choosing suitable induction machine as a
SEIG and finding the value of capacitor / capacitor
variation so as to design a system comprising prime
mover, machine, capacitor, VAR controller and load.
Therefore, a system designer would require a very user
friendly tool to be able to predict the performance under
varying load conditions, easily design the system and fix
the parameters of the components used e.g. the capacitors
and VAR controllers.
Assuming an unbalanced three-phase lagging power
factor (PF) load, the net impedance across the three
phases would are ZaL, ZbL bnd ZcL. The impedance ZaL
across the a-phase may be written as
(1a)
Similarly,
In this paper the star connected machine with three
capacitor excitation topology is considered to feed single
phase loads. The paper demonstrates that the versatile
facility available through MATLAB tool boxes can be
effectively used to provide such a software and design
package to interested users.
(1b)
(1c)
Only a limited effort is made in literature to this effect.
This paper attempts to provide such a user friendly
software package using MATLAB tool boxes with GUI
facility for comprehensive analysis, design and capacitor
estimation under different operating conditions. GUI
facility is shown to be an effective tool for the design to
visualize the results.
Where, Xca, Xcb, and Xcc are the reactances of excitation
capacitance. From the fig. 2.1 we can write loop equation.
(2)
36
Since Ia+Ib+Ic = 0, I0 = 0 and V0 = 0, i.e. zero sequence
components are absent. The symmetrical components of
phase currents and voltages are, there
(3)
Fig. 2.2 Single Phase Load in Parallel with Cp
In this case, the impedances across the three phases
namely, ZaL, ZbL and ZcL are-
And,
(4)
(7)
The load Voltages are,
In this Case,
(8)
(5)
Solving above equations, we get
(6)
B. SINGLE PHASE LOAD
This can be considered as a particular case of general
unbalance. To feed a single-phase load, three star
connected excitation capacitors namely, one Cp and two
Cs are connected across the terminals of the SEIG. The
single-phase load is connected in parallel with Cp. This
minimizes the winding current unbalance.
C. METHOD OF SOLUTION
Equation (6) is central to the analysis respectively for star
connected system as it defines the status under selfexcitation for the given external condition of capacitors,
load, speed and machine equivalent circuit parameters
under saturation conditions. By solving this equation one
should be able to obtain the unknown parameters, namely
the magnetizing reactance and per unit generated
frequency. The positive sequence equivalent circuit of the
induction machine is given in where reactances
correspond to the base frequency (50Hz) and Xm1 is the
saturated value corresponding to the forward revolving air
gap flux. The net response of the induction machine due
to several revolving fields is often taken as the
superimposed response of individual fields inspite of the
inherent nonlinearity. Simplified equivalent circuits are
given in,
Accordingly:
(9a)
International Research Journal of Engineering & Applied Sciences
www.irjeas.com, ISSN: 2322-0821, Volume 1, Issue 4, Oct. 2013 – Dec. 2013, Page 35-42
simplified equivalent circuit [5] modified to generating
connection, in which the current direction of I1, I2 and Ir
reverses. Since F is known, now, the earlier assumption
F= V can be ignored.
(9b)
Thus,
On substituting for Z1 and Z2 and rearranging (6), the
following two equations with F and Xm as unknown
quantities are obtained by equating real and imaginary
parts to zero separately:
(13)
f (Xm ,F)=0
g(Xm,F)=0
(14)
(9c)
For Star Connected Machine,
(16)
Impedance is recalculated as we know F by now:
(10)
(11)
(17)
(12)
Here A’, B’, C’ and D’ are constants. Solving (12) by
equating to zero, Xm and F are obtained.
III. PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS
(18)
After determining p.u. generated frequency F and
saturated magnetizing reactance Xm the next step is to
determine Normalized air-gap voltage Vg/ F
corresponding to this saturated Xm . As explained in [1],
the relevant magnetizing Characteristics relating Vg/ F
with Xm can be obtained by a synchronous speed test.
Performance equations can now be written using the
)
(19)
In this software package the aforementioned nonlinear
equations are solved by a numerical based routine
38
2.3
2.2
2.1
2
1.9
rotor flux
‘Fsolve’ in the tool box of MATLAB to find the values of
saturated magnetizing reactance Xm and the output p. u.
frequency F for the given values of machine parameters.
Based on the above analytical technique, a MATLAB’s
GUI program is developed which determine the load
characteristics and complete steady state analysis by
computing Vt, F, Po, etc under different operating
conditions. The above performance equations and the
simulation techniques can be easily extended to reactive
loads and variable speeds.
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
IV. RESULTS
In this section it is explained that how different
parameters can be calculated of SEIG using GUI
methodology.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
Effect of Stator Resistance on terminal voltage
Effect of Capacitance on terminal voltage
Motor torque – speed curve
Effect of rotor flux with time
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Time
2.5
3
3.5
4
This GUI design software tool can facilitate the user for
accurate and speedy analysis of SEIG. The mathematical
models representing all the operating conditions of a
SEIG have been programmed in script files (M-files)
using conventional MATLAB language in GUI
environment which makes it a very user friendly design
tool. This will provide the interactive windows for all
simulated operating conditions as shown below.
A MATLAB based computer program is written for
complete evaluation of the performance of the SEIG
under different operating conditions. MATLAB’s GUI
capabilities, menu and plotting commands are
implemented in a script file to provide interactive
windows for the users. Running the created GUI M-file,
called main-menu, from MATLAB workspace will
display the interactive window.
Fig. 4.3 The interactive window with clear grid and
editable parameters
After running the program an interactive window as
shown in Fig. 4.2 will appear with blank grid and all
default parameters in edit box for predicting the
performance.
Fig. 4.1 The Main GUI Window
International Research Journal of Engineering & Applied Sciences
www.irjeas.com, ISSN: 2322-0821, Volume 1, Issue 4, Oct. 2013 – Dec. 2013, Page 35-42
The Terminal Voltage and Power output at constant speed
with different values of capacitances are obtained from
these experimental results which are incorporated in the
GUI interactive window and compared with the simulated
results as,
Fig. 4.4 The window of the computed result for effect of
stator resistance on Terminal Voltage with fixed
capacitance
In the window shown in Fig. 4.3, by changing the p.u.
stator resistance in stator resistance edit box i,e ‘Rs’, the
user can simulate the effect of stator resistance on
terminal voltage as depicted in Fig 4.4. The clicking on
evaluate button processes the values of parameters
mentioned in respective edit boxes as described in above
equations. Similarly, clicking on respective buttons in
main menu the user can interact with this tool and will be
able to compute the desired results by changing the
parameters in edit boxes. Some simulation results are
shown in Figs. 4.3, 4.4 and 4.5.
Fig. 4.6 The window of the simulated and experimental
result for effect of Capacitance on Terminal Voltage
The simulated results are found very close to
experimental values which demonstrate satisfactory
performance of the proposed software package under
different operating conditions.
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Fig. 4.7 Variable Induction Motor Parameter to
Calculate the Torque Speed Curve
The parameters of the induction motor namely R, XS, P
can be edited. The stator frequency can be varied as per
Fig. 4.5 The window of the simulated result for effect of
capacitance on Terminal Voltage
40
the stator line-line voltage in order to calculate
corresponding torque, as per the number of poles.
The torque starts from 100 and builds upto the Tmax and
after reaching to maximum, the torque starts to decrease.
Motor torque-speed curve
300
N-m
Developed Torque,
Capacitor
[2]
S. S. Murthy and Rajesh Kr Ahuja, “Design and
Analysis of Three Phase Self Excited Induction
Generators using MATLAB Graphical User Interface
Based Methodology” IEEE International Conference
ICPCES 2010, Nov.28-Dec.1,2010 at Allahabad, India
Tmax
250
200
Td
150
100
Tst
50
0
feed Single Phase Loads with Three
Configuration”
978-1-4673-0934-9/12/$31.00 ©2012 IEEE
0
1000
500
1500
Rotor speed, rpm
V. CONCLUSION
The versatile facility available through MATLAB tool
boxes can be effectively used to provide such a software
and user-friendly design package to interested users. The
developed analytical design tool and software using
MATLAB tool boxes such as “Fsolve” routine and GUI
can be effectively used to predict the performance of
SEIG with different types of prime movers. SEIG as the
electrical generator is an ideal choice for isolated
variable-wind power generation schemes, as it has several
advantages over conventional synchronous machine. The
variation in magnetizing inductance is the main variable
that influences whether there will be steady state voltage
generation or not in a SEIG. All the operating conditions
of star connected machine with three capacitor excitation
topology to feed single phase loads are mathematically
modeled and then simulated using MATLAB instruction
in GUI environment. Close agreement between simulated
and experimental results demonstrates the usefulness for
designing SEIG based stand alone systems using this
software.
VI. REFERENCE
S S Murthy, Rajesh Kr Ahuj, and Jeetandra
Kr.Chaudhary “Steady State Analysis of Three Phase
[1]
Self Excited Induction Generator using MATLAB GUI to
[3] S. S. Murthy,G Bhuvaneswari , Rajesh Kr Ahuja and
Sarsing Gao,” A Novel MATLAB Graphical User
Interface Based Methodology For Analysis, Design And
Capacitor Estimation Of Self Excited Induction
Generators” in IEEE IAS 2010 Annual meeting, Oct.
2010, Houston , USA
[4] S. S. Murthy and A. J. P. Pinto, “A generalized
dynamic and steady state analysis of self excited
induction generator (SEIG) based on matlab,” in Proc.
2005 ICEMS Conf Nanjing (China)., vol. 3, pp. 19331938,2005
[5]
S. N. Mahato, S. P. Singh, and M. P. Sharma,
“Excitation capacitance required for self excited single
phase induction generator using three phase machine,”
Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 49, pp.11261133, Nov. 2008
[6] Y. N. Anagreh and I. M. Al-Refae’e, “Teaching the
self excited induction generator using Matlab”, Intl.
Journal of Electrical Engineering Education, vol. 40, no.1,
pp. 55-65, Jan. 2003
[7] S. S. Murthy, B. Singh, S. Gupta, and B. M. Gulati,
“General steady state analysis of three-phase self excited
induction generator feeding three-phase unbalanced
load/single-phase load for stand-alone applications”,
Proc. 2003 IEE, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 49-55, Jan.2003
[8] G. K. Singh, “Modeling and experimental analysis of
a self-excited six phase induction generator for standalone renewable energy generation,” Renewable Energy,
vol. 33, pp. 1605-1621, Jul. 2008
[9] S. S. Murthy, O. P. Malik and P.Walsh, "Capacitive
VAR requirements of Self-excited Induction Generators
to Achieve Desired Voltage Regulation", IEEE
Conference Record of Industrial and Commercial Power
International Research Journal of Engineering & Applied Sciences
www.irjeas.com, ISSN: 2322-0821, Volume 1, Issue 4, Oct. 2013 – Dec. 2013, Page 35-42
Systems Technical Conference. Milwaukee (USA), pp124128, Jun. 1983.
[10] S. S. Murthy, B. P. Singh, C. Nagmani, and K. V.
V. Satyanarayana, “Studies on the use of conventional
induction motors as self-excited induction generators,”
IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 3, pp. 842–848,
Dec. 1988
42
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