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3 13 The Three Domains of Life

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3 13 The Three Domains of Life
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1.3 The Three Domains of Life
9
These transplanted genes can alter the characteristics of
the recipient organisms, so they may provide powerful
tools for agriculture and for intervening in human
genetic diseases. We will examine gene cloning in detail in
Chapter 4.
SUMMARY All cellular genes are made of DNA
arranged in a double helix. This structure explains
how genes engage in their three main activities:
replication, carrying information, and collecting
mutations. The complementary nature of the two
DNA strands in a gene allows them to be replicated
faithfully by separating and serving as templates for
the assembly of two new complementary strands.
The sequence of nucleotides in a gene is a genetic
code that carries the information for making an
RNA. Most of these are messenger RNAs that carry
the information to protein-synthesizing ribosomes.
The end result is a new polypeptide chain made
according to the gene’s instructions. A change in the
sequence of bases constitutes a mutation, which can
change the sequence of amino acids in the gene’s
polypeptide product. Genes can be cloned, allowing
molecular biologists to harvest abundant supplies of
their products.
1.3
The Three Domains of Life
In the early part of the twentieth century, scientists divided
all life into two kingdoms: animal and plant. Bacteria were
considered plants, which is why we still refer to the bacteria in our guts as intestinal “flora.” But after the middle of
the century, this classification system was abandoned in
favor of a five-kingdom system that included bacteria,
fungi, and protists, in addition to plants and animals.
Then in the late 1970s, Carl Woese (Figure 1.14) performed sequencing studies on the ribosomal RNA genes of
many different organisms and reached a startling conclusion: A class of organisms that had been classified as bacteria
have rRNA genes that are more similar to those of eukaryotes than they are to those of classical bacteria like E. coli.
Thus, Woese named these organisms archaebacteria, to distinguish them from true bacteria, or eubacteria. However, as
more and more molecular evidence accumulated, it became
clear that the archaebacteria, despite a superficial resemblance, are not really bacteria. They represent a distinct
domain of life, so Woese changed their name to archaea.
Now we recognize three domains of life: bacteria, eukaryota,
and archaea. Like bacteria, archaea are prokaryotes—
organisms without nuclei—but their molecular biology is
actually more like that of eukaryotes than that of bacteria.
Figure 1.14 Carl Woese. (Source: Courtesy U. of Ill at Urbana Champaign.)
The archaea live in the most inhospitable regions of the
earth. Some of them are thermophiles (“heat-lovers”) that
live in seemingly unbearably hot zones at temperatures
above 1008C near deep-ocean geothermal vents or in hot
springs such as those in Yellowstone National Park. Others
are halophiles (halogen-lovers) that can tolerate very high
salt concentrations that would dessicate and kill other forms
of life. Still others are methanogens (“methane-producers”)
that inhabit environments such as a cow’s stomach, which
explains why cows are such a good source of methane.
In this book, we will deal mostly with the first two domains, because they are the best studied. However, we will
encounter some interesting aspects of the molecular biology
of the archaea throughout this book, including details of
their transcription in Chapter 11. And in Chapter 24, we
will learn that an archaeon, Methanococcus jannaschii, was
among the first organisms to have its genome sequenced.
All living things are grouped into
three domains: bacteria, eukaryota, and archaea.
Although the archaea resemble the bacteria physically, some aspects of their molecular biology are
more similar to those of eukaryota.
SUMMARY
This concludes our brief chronology of molecular biology. Table 1.1 reviews some of the milestones. Although it is
a very young discipline, it has an exceptionally rich history,
and molecular biologists are now adding new knowledge at
an explosive rate. Indeed, the pace of discovery in molecular
biology, and the power of its techniques, has led many commentators to call it a revolution. Because some of the most
important changes in medicine and agriculture over the
next few decades are likely to depend on the manipulation
of genes by molecular biologists, this revolution will touch
everyone’s life in one way or another. Thus, you are
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Chapter 1 / A Brief History
Table 1.1
1859
1865
1869
1900
Molecular Biology Time Line
1966
1970
Charles Darwin
Gregor Mendel
Friedrich Miescher
Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns, Erich
von Tschermak
Archibald Garrod
Walter Sutton, Theodor Boveri
Thomas Hunt Morgan, Calvin Bridges
A.H. Sturtevant
H.J. Muller
Harriet Creighton, Barbara McClintock
George Beadle, E.L. Tatum
Oswald Avery, Colin McLeod,
Maclyn McCarty
James Watson, Francis Crick,
Rosalind Franklin, Maurice Wilkins
Matthew Meselson, Franklin Stahl
Sydney Brenner, François Jacob,
Matthew Meselson
Marshall Nirenberg, Gobind Khorana
Hamilton Smith
1972
1973
1977
Paul Berg
Herb Boyer, Stanley Cohen
Frederick Sanger
1977
1993
Phillip Sharp, Richard Roberts,
and others
Victor Ambros and colleagues
1995
Craig Venter, Hamilton Smith
1996
Many investigators
1997
1998
Ian Wilmut and colleagues
Andrew Fire and colleagues
2003
2005
Many investigators
Many investigators
2007
Craig Venter and colleagues
2008
Jian Wang and colleagues
2008
David Bentley and colleagues
1902
1902
1910, 1916
1913
1927
1931
1941
1944
1953
1958
1961
Published On the Origin of Species
Advanced the principles of segregation and independent assortment
Discovered DNA
Rediscovered Mendel’s principles
First suggested a genetic cause for a human disease
Proposed the chromosome theory
Demonstrated that genes are on chromosomes
Constructed a genetic map
Induced mutation by x-rays
Obtained physical evidence for recombination
Proposed the one-gene/one-enzyme hypothesis
Identified DNA as the material genes are made of
Determined the structure of DNA
Demonstrated the semiconservative replication of DNA
Discovered messenger RNA
Finished unraveling the genetic code
Discovered restriction enzymes that cut DNA at specific sites, which
made cutting and pasting DNA easy, thus facilitating DNA cloning
Made the first recombinant DNA in vitro
First used a plasmid to clone DNA
Worked out methods to determine the sequence of bases in DNA
and determined the base sequence of an entire viral genome (ϕX174)
Discovered interruptions (introns) in genes
Discovered that a cellular microRNA can decrease gene expression
by base-pairing to an mRNA
Determined the base sequences of the genomes of two bacteria:
Haemophilus influenzae and Mycoplasma genitalium, the first genomes
of free-living organisms to be sequenced
Determined the base sequence of the genome of brewer’s yeast,
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the first eukaryotic genome to be sequenced
Cloned a sheep (Dolly) from an adult sheep udder cell
Discovered that RNAi works by degrading mRNAs containing
the same sequence as an invading double-stranded RNA
Reported a finished sequence of the human genome
Reported the rough draft of the genome of the chimpanzee,
our closest relative
Used traditional sequencing to obtain the first sequence of an individual
human (Craig Venter).
Used “next generation” sequencing to obtain the first sequence of an
Asian (Han Chinese) human.
Used single molecule sequencing to obtain the first sequence of an
African (Nigerian) human.
embarking on a study of a subject that is not only fascinating and elegant, but one that has practical importance as
well. F. H. Westheimer, professor emeritus of chemistry at
Harvard University, put it well: “The greatest intellectual
revolution of the last 40 years may have taken place in biology. Can anyone be considered educated today who does
not understand a little about molecular biology?” Happily,
after this course you should understand more than a little.
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Suggested Readings
S U M M A RY
Genes can exist in several different forms called alleles.
A recessive allele can be masked by a dominant one in
a heterozygote, but it does not disappear. It can be
expressed again in a homozygote bearing two recessive
alleles.
Genes exist in a linear array on chromosomes.
Therefore, traits governed by genes that lie on the
same chromosome can be inherited together. However,
recombination between homologous chromosomes
occurs during meiosis, so that gametes bearing
nonparental combinations of alleles can be produced.
The farther apart two genes lie on a chromosome, the
more likely such recombination between them will be.
Most genes are made of double-stranded DNA
arranged in a double helix. One strand is the complement of the other, which means that faithful gene
replication requires that the two strands separate and
acquire complementary partners. The linear sequence
of bases in a typical gene carries the information for
making a protein.
The process of making a gene product is called gene
expression. It occurs in two steps: transcription and
11
translation. In the transcription step, RNA polymerase
makes a messenger RNA, which is a copy of the information in the gene. In the translation step, ribosomes
“read” the mRNA and make a protein according to
its instructions. Thus, a change (mutation) in a gene’s
sequence may cause a corresponding change in the
protein product.
All living things are grouped into three domains:
bacteria, eukaryota, and archaea. The archaea resemble
bacteria physically, but their molecular biology more
closely resembles that of eukaryota.
SUGGESTED READINGS
Creighton, H.B., and B. McClintock. 1931. A correlation of
cytological and genetical crossing-over in Zea mays. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 17:492–97.
Mirsky, A.E. 1968. The discovery of DNA. Scientific American 218 (June):78–88.
Morgan, T.H. 1910. Sex-limited inheritance in Drosophila.
Science 32:120–22.
Sturtevant, A.H. 1913. The linear arrangement of six sex-linked
factors in Drosophila, as shown by their mode of association.
Journal of Experimental Zoology 14:43–59.
Fly UP