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Venn diagrams

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Venn diagrams
30
Probability
All scientists will know the importance of experiment and observation and,
equally, be aware that the results of some experiments depend to a degree on
chance. For example, in an experiment to measure the heights of a random sample
of people, we would not be in the least surprised if all the heights were found to
be different; but, if the experiment were repeated often enough, we would expect
to find some sort of regularity in the results. Statistics, which is the subject of the
next chapter, is concerned with the analysis of real experimental data of this sort.
First, however, we discuss probability. To a pure mathematician, probability is an
entirely theoretical subject based on axioms. Although this axiomatic approach is
important, and we discuss it briefly, an approach to probability more in keeping
with its eventual applications in statistics is adopted here.
We first discuss the terminology required, with particular reference to the
convenient graphical representation of experimental results as Venn diagrams.
The concepts of random variables and distributions of random variables are then
introduced. It is here that the connection with statistics is made; we assert that
the results of many experiments are random variables and that those results have
some sort of regularity, which is represented by a distribution. Precise definitions
of a random variable and a distribution are then given, as are the defining
equations for some important distributions. We also derive some useful quantities
associated with these distributions.
30.1 Venn diagrams
We call a single performance of an experiment a trial and each possible result
an outcome. The sample space S of the experiment is then the set of all possible
outcomes of an individual trial. For example, if we throw a six-sided die then there
are six possible outcomes that together form the sample space of the experiment.
At this stage we are not concerned with how likely a particular outcome might
1119
PROBABILITY
B
A
i
iii
ii
iv
S
Figure 30.1 A Venn diagram.
be (we will return to the probability of an outcome in due course) but rather
will concentrate on the classification of possible outcomes. It is clear that some
sample spaces are finite (e.g. the outcomes of throwing a die) whilst others are
infinite (e.g. the outcomes of measuring people’s heights). Most often, one is not
interested in individual outcomes but in whether an outcome belongs to a given
subset A (say) of the sample space S; these subsets are called events. For example,
we might be interested in whether a person is taller or shorter than 180 cm, in
which case we divide the sample space into just two events: namely, that the
outcome (height measured) is (i) greater than 180 cm or (ii) less than 180 cm.
A common graphical representation of the outcomes of an experiment is the
Venn diagram. A Venn diagram usually consists of a rectangle, the interior of
which represents the sample space, together with one or more closed curves inside
it. The interior of each closed curve then represents an event. Figure 30.1 shows
a typical Venn diagram representing a sample space S and two events A and
B. Every possible outcome is assigned to an appropriate region; in this example
there are four regions to consider (marked i to iv in figure 30.1):
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
outcomes
outcomes
outcomes
outcomes
that
that
that
that
belong
belong
belong
belong
to
to
to
to
event A but not to event B;
event B but not to event A;
both event A and event B;
neither event A nor event B.
A six-sided die is thrown. Let event A be ‘the number obtained is divisible by 2’ and event
B be ‘the number obtained is divisible by 3’. Draw a Venn diagram to represent these events.
It is clear that the outcomes 2, 4, 6 belong to event A and that the outcomes 3, 6 belong
to event B. Of these, 6 belongs to both A and B. The remaining outcomes, 1, 5, belong to
neither A nor B. The appropriate Venn diagram is shown in figure 30.2. In the above example, one outcome, 6, is divisible by both 2 and 3 and so
belongs to both A and B. This outcome is placed in region iii of figure 30.1, which
is called the intersection of A and B and is denoted by A ∩ B (see figure 30.3(a)).
If no events lie in the region of intersection then A and B are said to be mutually
exclusive or disjoint. In this case, often the Venn diagram is drawn so that the
closed curves representing the events A and B do not overlap, so as to make
1120
30.1 VENN DIAGRAMS
A
2
4
B
6
3
1
S
5
Figure 30.2 The Venn diagram for the outcomes of the die-throwing trials
described in the worked example.
A
B
S
A
S
(a)
B
(b)
A
A
S
B
Ā
(c)
S
(d)
Figure 30.3 Venn diagrams: the shaded regions show (a) A ∩ B, the intersection of two events A and B, (b) A ∪ B, the union of events A and B, (c)
the complement Ā of an event A, (d) A − B, those outcomes in A that do not
belong to B.
graphically explicit the fact that A and B are disjoint. It is not necessary, however,
to draw the diagram in this way, since we may simply assign zero outcomes to
the shaded region in figure 30.3(a). An event that contains no outcomes is called
the empty event and denoted by ∅. The event comprising all the elements that
belong to either A or B, or to both, is called the union of A and B and is denoted
by A ∪ B (see figure 30.3(b)). In the previous example, A ∪ B = {2, 3, 4, 6}.
It is sometimes convenient to talk about those outcomes that do not belong to
a particular event. The set of outcomes that do not belong to A is called the
complement of A and is denoted by Ā (see figure 30.3(c)); this can also be written
as Ā = S − A. It is clear that A ∪ Ā = S and A ∩ Ā = ∅.
The above notation can be extended in an obvious way, so that A − B denotes
the outcomes in A that do not belong to B. It is clear from figure 30.3(d) that
A − B can also be written as A ∩ B̄. Finally, when all the outcomes in event B
(say) also belong to event A, but A may contain, in addition, outcomes that do
1121
PROBABILITY
B
2
4
A
1
8
7 5
6
3
C
S
Figure 30.4 The general Venn diagram for three events is divided into eight
regions.
not belong to B, then B is called a subset of A, a situation that is denoted by
B ⊂ A; alternatively, one may write A ⊃ B, which states that A contains B. In this
case, the closed curve representing the event B is often drawn lying completely
within the closed curve representing the event A.
The operations ∪ and ∩ are extended straightforwardly to more than two
events. If there exist n events A1 , A2 , . . . , An , in some sample space S, then the
event consisting of all those outcomes that belong to one or more of the Ai is the
union of A1 , A2 , . . . , An and is denoted by
A1 ∪ A2 ∪ · · · ∪ An .
(30.1)
Similarly, the event consisting of all the outcomes that belong to every one of the
Ai is called the intersection of A1 , A2 , . . . , An and is denoted by
A1 ∩ A2 ∩ · · · ∩ An .
(30.2)
If, for any pair of values i, j with i = j,
Ai ∩ Aj = ∅
(30.3)
then the events Ai and Aj are said to be mutually exclusive or disjoint.
Consider three events A, B and C with a Venn diagram such as is shown in
figure 30.4. It will be clear that, in general, the diagram will be divided into eight
regions and they will be of four different types. Three regions correspond to a
single event; three regions are each the intersection of exactly two events; one
region is the three-fold intersection of all three events; and finally one region
corresponds to none of the events. Let us now consider the numbers of different
regions in a general n-event Venn diagram.
For one-event Venn diagrams there are two regions, for the two-event case
there are four regions and, as we have just seen, for the three-event case there are
eight. In the general n-event case there are 2n regions, as is clear from the fact
that any particular region R lies either inside or outside the closed curve of any
particular event. With two choices (inside or outside) for each of n closed curves,
there are 2n different possible combinations with which to characterise R. Once n
1122
30.1 VENN DIAGRAMS
gets beyond three it becomes impossible to draw a simple two-dimensional Venn
diagram, but this does not change the results.
The 2n regions will break down into n + 1 types, with the numbers of each type
as follows§
no events,
one event but no intersections,
two-fold intersections,
three-fold intersections,
..
.
n
an n-fold intersection,
n
C0
C1
n
C2
n
C3
n
= 1;
= n;
= 12 n(n − 1);
= 3!1 n(n − 1)(n − 2);
Cn = 1.
That this makes a total of 2n can be checked by considering the binomial
expansion
2n = (1 + 1)n = 1 + n + 12 n(n − 1) + · · · + 1.
Using Venn diagrams, it is straightforward to show that the operations ∩ and
∪ obey the following algebraic laws:
commutativity,
associativity,
distributivity,
idempotency,
A ∩ B = B ∩ A, A ∪ B = B ∪ A;
(A ∩ B) ∩ C = A ∩ (B ∩ C), (A ∪ B) ∪ C = A ∪ (B ∪ C);
A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C),
A ∪ (B ∩ C) = (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C);
A ∩ A = A, A ∪ A = A.
Show that (i) A ∪ (A ∩ B) = A ∩ (A ∪ B) = A, (ii) (A − B) ∪ (A ∩ B) = A.
(i) Using the distributivity and idempotency laws above, we see that
A ∪ (A ∩ B) = (A ∪ A) ∩ (A ∪ B) = A ∩ (A ∪ B).
By sketching a Venn diagram it is immediately clear that both expressions are equal to
A. Nevertheless, we here proceed in a more formal manner in order to deduce this result
algebraically. Let us begin by writing
X = A ∪ (A ∩ B) = A ∩ (A ∪ B),
(30.4)
from which we want to deduce a simpler expression for the event X. Using the first equality
in (30.4) and the algebraic laws for ∩ and ∪, we may write
A ∩ X = A ∩ [A ∪ (A ∩ B)]
= (A ∩ A) ∪ [A ∩ (A ∩ B)]
= A ∪ (A ∩ B) = X.
§
The symbols n Ci , for i = 0, 1, 2,. . . , n, are a convenient notation for combinations; they and their
properties are discussed in chapter 1.
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