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Analog Circuit Design

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Analog Circuit Design
John Wilson
16. Analog Circuit Design
Analog circuit design involves a strange mix of intuition, experience,
analysis, and luck. One of the nicest things about the job is that you feel
very smart when you make something work very well.
A necessary condition for being a good analog designer is that you
know about 57 important facts. If you know these 57 important facts, and
know them well enough that they become part of your working intuition,
you may become a good analog circuit designer.
Undoubtedly, there is an organized way to present these facts to the
"interested student." The facts could be prioritized, or they could be alphabetized, or derived from first principles. The priority could be assigned,
with the most important facts coming first on the list (for emphasis) or last
on the list (for suspense). Some day, when I have a lot of time, I'm going
to put the list in the right order.
It is difficult to present all the facts in such a way that will make sense
to everyone. Sometimes I think that the only way to do this is by working
examples over a twenty-year period. But we don't have time for that, and
so as a poor alternative, I'm just going to write the facts down as they
occur to me. There is a very good chance that you have run into most of
these facts already. If so, just take heart that someone else has been tormented by the same problems.
Here's the list of things you should know:
0. If you even look at another engineer's approach to solving an
analog circuit design problem before you solve the problem yourself, you
greatly reduce the chance that you will do something creative.
1. Capacitors and resistors have parasitic inductance. A good rule
of thumb is 4nH for a leaded component, and about 0.4nH for a surfacemount chip component. This means that a lOOpF leaded capacitor will
have a self-resonance at 250MHz. This can be just great, if you are using
the part to bypass a 250MHz signal, but might be a nuisance otherwise.
2. If you don't want a transistor with a high bandwidth to oscillate in
a circuit, place lossy components in at least two out of its three leads. A
33O resistor in the base and collector leads will usually do the trick without degrading performance. Ferrite beads in the leads work well to fix the
same problem.
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Analog Circuit Design
3. If you are probing a circuit with a dc voltmeter and the readings
are not making any sense (for example, if there is a large offset at the
input to an op amp, but the output is not pinned) suspect that something
is oscillating.
4. Op amps will often oscillate when driving capacitive loads. A
good way to think about this problem is that the low-pass filter formed by
the output resistance of the op amp together with the capacitance of the
load is adding enough phase shift (taken together with the phase shift
through the op amp) that your negative feedback has become positive
feedback.
5. The base-emitter voltage (V^) of a small signal transistor is about
0.65V and drops by about 2mV/°C. Yes, the V^ goes down as the temperature goes up.
6. The Johnson noise of a resistor is about 0.13nV/vHzA/O. So, multiply 0.13nV by the square root of the resistance value (in Ohms) to find
the noise in a 1 Hz bandwidth. Then multiply by the square root of your
bandwidth (in Hertz) to find the total noise voltage. This is the rms noise
voltage: you can expect about 5-6 times the rms value in a peak-to-peak
measurement.
Example: a l&Q resistor has about 4.1nV/A/Hz, or about 41m
Vrms in a 100MHz bandwidth, which would look like about 0.2mV
peak-to-peak on a 100MHz 'scope. Note that the Johnson noise voltage
goes up with the square root of the resistance.
7. The Johnson noise current of a resistor is equal to the Johnson
noise voltage divided by the resistance. (Thanks to Professor Ohm.) Note
that the Johnson noise current goes down as the resistance goes up.
8. The impedance looking into the emitter of a transistor at room
temperature is 26O divided by the emitter current in mA,
9. All amplifiers are differential, i.e., they are referenced to a
"ground" somewhere. Single-ended designs just ignore that fact, and
pretend (sometimes to a good approximation) that the signal ground is
the same as the ground that is used for the feedback network or for the
non-inverting input to the op amp.
10. A typical metal film resistor has a temperature coefficient of about
100 ppm/°C. Tempcos about lOx better are available at reasonable cost,
but you will pay a lot for tempcos around a few ppm.
11. The input noise voltage of a very quiet op amp is 1 nV/VHz. But
there are a lot of op amps around with 20 nV/VSz of input noise.
Also, watch out for input noise current: multiply the input noise current
by the source impedance of the networks connected to the op amp's inputs to determine which noise source is most important, and select
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John Willison
your op amps accordingly. Generally speaking, op amps with bipolar
front-ends have lower voltage noise and higher current noise than op
amps with FET front-ends.
12. Be aware that using an LC circuit as a power supply filter can
actually multiply the power supply noise at the resonant frequency of
the filter. A choke is an inductor with a very low Q to avoid just this
problem.
13. Use comparators for comparing, and op amps for amplifying, and
don't even think about mixing the two.
14. Ceramic capacitors with any dielectric other than NPO should be
used only for bypass applications. For example, Z5U dielectrics exhibit a
capacitance change of 50% between 25°C and 80°C, and X7R dielectrics
change their capacity by about 1 %/V between 0 and 5V. Imagine the
distortion!
15. An N-channel enhancement-mode FET is a part that needs a positive voltage on the gate relative to the source to conduct from drain to
source.
16. Small-signal JFETs are often characterized by extremely low gate
currents, and so work very well as low-leakage diodes (connect the drain
and source together). Use them in log current-to-voltage converters and
for low-leakage input protection.
17. If you want to low-pass filter a signal, use a Bessel (or phase linear) filter for the least overshoot in the time domain, and use a Cauer (or
elliptic) filter for the fastest rolloff in the frequency domain. The rise time
for a Bessel-filtered signal will be .35 divided by the 3dB bandwidth of
the filter. Good 'scope front-ends behave like Bessel filters, and so a
350MHz 'scope will exhibit a 1.0ns rise time for an infinitely fast input
step.
18. A decibel (dB) is always 10 times the log of the ratio of two powers. Period. Sometimes the power is proportional to the square of the
voltage or current. In these cases you may want to use a formula with a
twenty in it, but I didn't want to confuse anybody here.
19. At low frequencies, the current in the collector of a transistor is in
phase with the current applied to the base. At high frequencies, the collector current lags by 90°. You will not understand any high-frequency
oscillator circuits until you appreciate this simple fact.
20. The most common glass-epoxy PCB material (FR-4) has a dielectric constant of about 4.3. To build a trace with a characteristic impedance of 100O, use a trace width of about 0.4 times the thickness of the
FR-4 with a ground plane on the other side. To make a 50Q trace, you
will need a trace width about 2.0 times the thickness of the FR-4.
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Analog Circuit Design
21 . If you need a programmable dynamic current source, find out
about operational transconductance amplifiers. NSC makes a nice one
called the LM 13600, Most of the problem is figuring out when you need
a programmable dynamic current source.
22. An 5V relay coil can be driven very nicely by a CMOS output
with an emitter follower. Usually 5V relays have a "must make" specification of 3.5V, so this configuration will save power and does not require
any flyback components.
23. A typical thermocouple potential is 30^1 V/°C. If you care about a
few hundred microvolts in a circuit, you will need to take care: route all
your signals differentially, along the same path, and avoid temperature
gradients. DPDT latching relays work well for multiplexing signals in
these applications as they do not heat up, thus avoiding large temperature
gradients, which could generate offsets even when the signals are routed
differentially.
24. You should be bothered by a design which looks messy, cluttered,
or indirect. This uncomfortable feeling is one of the few indications you
have to know that there is a better way.
25. If you have not already done so, buy 100 pieces of each 5%,
carbon film resistor value and arrange them in some nice slide-out plastic
drawers. When you are feeling extravagant, do the same for the 1 % metal
film types.
26. Avoid drawing any current from the wiper of a potentiometer. The
resistance of the wiper contact will cause problems (local heating, noise,
offsets, etc.) if you do.
27. Most digital phase detectors have a deadband, i.e., the analog
output does not change over a small range near where the two inputs are
coincident. This often-ignored fact has helped to create some very noisy
PLLs.
28. The phase noise of a phase-locked VCO will be at least 6dB
worse than the phase noise of the divided reference for each octave between the comparison frequency and the VCO output frequency. Hint:
avoid low-comparison frequencies.
29. For very low distortion, the drains (or collectors, as the case may
be) of a differential amplifier's front-end should be bootstrapped to the
source (or emitter) so that the voltages on the part are not modulated by
the input signal.
30. If your design uses a $3 op amp, and if you are going to be making a thousand of them, realize that you have just spent $3000. Are you
smart enough to figure out how to use a $.30 op amp instead? If you
think you are, then the return on your time is pretty good.
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John Willison
31. Often, the Q of an LC tank circuit is dominated by losses in the
inductor, which are modeled by a series resistance, R. The Q of such a
part is given by Q = ©L/R.
At the resonant frequency, f = 1/2 WLC, the reactance of the L and C
cancel each other. At this frequency, the impedance of a series LC circuit
is just R, and the impedance across a parallel LC tank is Q2R.
32. Leakage currents get a factor of 2 worse for every 10°C increase
in temperature..
33. When the inputs to most JFET op amps exceed the commonmode range for the part, the output may reverse polarity. This artifact
will haunt the designers of these parts for the rest of their lives, as it
should. In the meantime, you need to be very careful when designing
circuits with these parts; a benign-looking unity follower inside a feedback loop can cause the loop to lock up forever if the common-mode input to the op amps is exceeded.
34. Understand the difference between "make-before-break" and
"break-before-make" when you specify switches.
35. Three-terminal voltage regulators in TO220 packages are wonderful parts and you should use a lot of them. They are cheap, ragged, thermally protected, and very versatile. Besides their recommended use as
voltage regulators, they may be used in heater circuits, battery chargers,
or virtually any place where you would like a protected power transistor.
36. If you need to make a really fast edge, like under lOOpS, use a
step recovery diode. To generate a fast edge, you start by passing a current in the forward direction, then quickly (in under a few nanoseconds)
reverse the current through the diode. Like most diodes, the SRD will
conduct current in the reverse direction for a time called the reverse recovery time, and then it will stop conducting very abruptly (a "step" recovery). The transition time can be as short as 35pS, and this will be the
rise time of the current step into your load.
Well, there you have it. These are the first 37 of the 57 facts you must
know to become an analog circuit designer. I have either misplaced, forgotten, or have yet to learn the 20 missing items. If you find any, would
you let me know? Happy hunting!
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